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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Meissner's Corpuscle
What structure is this?
Pacinian Corpuscle
What structure is this?
Pacinian Corpuscle in x-section
What structure is this?
muscle spindle
What structure is this?
Golgi tendon organ
What structure is this?
retina
What structure is this?
organ of Corti
What structure is this?
motor end-plate
What structure is this?
What level is this section and what structures does it contain?
1. Fasciculus gracilis

2. Nucleus gracilis

3. Fasciculus cuneatus
4. Nucleus cuneatus

5. Spinal tract of V
6. Spinal nucleus of V

7. Pyramidal decussation
8. Continuation of the lateral funiculus into the medulla (containing spinocerebellar and spinothalamic pathways)
What level is this section and what structures does it contain?
lower medulla (closed)
1. Fasciculus gracilis

2. Nucleus gracilis

3. Fasciculus cuneatus
4. Nucleus cuneatus

5. Spinal tract of V
6. Spinal nucleus of V

7. Internal arcuate fibers
8. Decussation of the medial lemniscus

9. Pyramid

10. Spinothalamic tract
What level is this section and what structures does it contain?
mid-medulla (obex)
1. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

2. Hypoglossal nucleus (XII)

3. Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (X)
4. Solitary tract

5. Internal arcuate fibers coursing through the reticular formation
6. Spinal tract and spinal nucleus of V

7. Restiform body (inferior cerebellar peduncle)
8. Medial lemniscus

9. Inferior olivary nucleus

10. Pyramid

11. Spinothalamic tract
What level is this section and what structures does it contain?
mid-medulla (open)
1. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

2. Hypoglossal nucleus (XII)

3. Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (X)
4. Solitary tract

5. Vagal rootlets (X)
6. Restiform body (inferior cerebellar peduncle)

7. Spinal tract of V
8. Location of the nucleus ambiguus (X) within the reticular formation

9. Hypoglossal rootlets (XII)

10. Medial lemniscus

11. Inferior olivary nucleus

12. Pyramid

13. Spinothalamic tract

14. Lateral cuneate nucleus
upper medulla
What level is this section?
What level is this section and what structures does it contain?
upper medulla (cochlear complex)
deep cerebellar nuclei
What level is this section?
What level is this section and what structures does it contain?
lower pons (facial)
1. Abducens nucleus

2. Vestibular nuclei

3. Restiform body (inferior cerebellar peduncle)
4. Abducens rootlets

5. Spinal tract & spinal nucleus of V
6. Facial nerve rootlet (VII)

7. Facial nucleus
8. Central tegmental tract

9. Superior olivary complex

10. Facial nerve (VII)

11. Trapezoid body & media lemniscus

12. Brachium pontis (middle cerebellar peduncle)

13. Pyramidal fasciculi

14. Pontine nuclei

15. Cerebellar vermis

16. Fourth ventricle containing choroid plexus

17. Dentate nucleus of cerebellum

18. Spinothalamic tract
What level is this section and what structures does it contain?
mid-pons (trigeminal)
1. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

2. Central tegmental tract

3. Superior (chief, main) sensory nucleus of V
4. Motor nucleus of V

5. Superior olivary complex, lateral lemniscus, and spinothalamic tract
6. Medial lemniscus

7. Brachium pontis (middle cerebellar peduncle)
8. Pyramidal fasciculi
Nissl-stained spinal cord showing chromatolysis of neurons
What is this an image of?
electron micrograph of demyelinating axon during recovery from Guillain-Barre disease
What is this an image of?
teased axon: demyelinating (Guillain-Barre)
What ios this an image of?
teased axons: axonopathy
What is this an image of?
H&E -stained normal skeletal muscle (myofibers)
What is this an image of?
H&E stained muscle showing "small group atrophy"
What is this an image of?
muscle fibers, denervated; ATPase staining: fiber-type grouping
What is this an image of?
muscle fibers, normal: ATPase staining
What is this an image of?
Muscle from young male with DMD
A. Fiber splitting and endomysial fibrosis
B. Nuclei displaced to the center of the muscle fiber
What is this an image of?
muscle myopathy: endomysial fibrosis and fat infiltration
What is this image?
What level is this section and what structures does it display?
upper pons (pretgigeminal)
1. Anterior medullary velum

2. Mesencephalic tract (and nucleus) of V

3. Brachium conjunctivum (superior cerebellar peduncle
4. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

5. Lateral lemniscus
6. Medial lemniscus

7. Central tegmental tract
8. Pyramidal fasciculi

9. Spinothalamic tract
What level is this section and what structures does it display?
isthmus rhombencephali
1. Trochlear nerve (IV) decussating in the anterior medullary velum and exiting dorsally

2. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

3. Brachium conjunctivum (superior cerebellar peduncle)
4. Lateral lemniscus

5. Decussation of the brachium conjunctivum
6. Medial lemniscus

7. Cerebral peduncle
8. Cerebral aqueduct

9. Periaqueductal gray
What level is this section and what structures does it display?
lower midbrain (inferior colliculus)
1. Trochlear nucleus (IV)

2. Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)

3. Inferior colliculus
4. Central tegmental tract

5. Brachium conjunctivum (superior cerebellar peduncle)
6. Medial lemniscus

7. Substantia nigra
8. Cerebral peduncle

9. Exiting oculomotor nerve (III)

10. Mammillary body

11. Brachium of the inferior colliculus

12. Floor of hypothalamus

13. Uncus
What level is this section and what structures can be identified?
upper midbrain (superior colliculus)
1. Oculomotor nucleus (III)

2. Superior colliculus

3. Spinothalamic tract
4. Brachium of the inferior colliculus

5. Medial geniculate body
6. Medial lemniscus

7. Red nucleus
8. Substantia nigra

9. Cerebral peduncle

10. Mammillary body

11. Hypothalamus

12. Periaqueductal gray

13. Optic chiasm

14. Optic tract

15. Amygdala
midbrain-diencephalic junction
What level is this section?
What level is this section and what structures can be identified?
midbrain-diencephalic junction
1. Superior colliculus

2. Medial lemniscus

3. Brachium of the superior colliculus
4. Medial geniculate body

5. Pulvinar
6. Brachium of the inferior colliculus

7. Lateral geniculate body
8. Red nucleus

9. Cerebral peduncle

10. Subthalamic nucleus

11. Mammillothalamic tract

12. Putamen

13. Globus pallidus

14. Fornix

15. Anterior commissure

16. Lamina terminalis

17. Optic tract

18. Hypothalamus

19. Third ventricle
caudal diencephalon
What level is this section?
What level is this section and what structures can be identified?
caudal diencephalon
1. Corpus callosum

2. Fornix

3. Lateral ventricle
4. Third ventricle

5. Cardate nucleus (body)
6. Dorsal medial (or medial dorsal) nucleus of thalamus.

7. Intralaminar nuclei of thalamus
8. Ventral postereolateral (VPL) nucleus of thalamus

9. Ventral postereomedial (VPM) nucleus of thalamus

10. Fields of Forel

11. Red nucleus

12. Substantia nigra

13. Cerebral peduncle

14. Lateral genicule nucleus

15. Internal capsule (posterior limb)
mid-diencephalon
What level is this section?
What level is this section and what structures can be identified?
rostral diencephalon
1. Corpus callosum

2. Fornix

3. Anterior nucleus of the thalamus
4. Caudate nucleus

5. Internal capsule
6. Medial mass of the dorsal thalamus

7. Internal medullary lamina
8. Lateral mass of the dorsal thalamus

9. Interthalamic adhesion

10. Mammillothalmic trac

11. Subthalamus (Fields of Forel and zona incerta)

12a. Globus pallidus, internal segment

12b. Globus pallidus, external segment

13. Subthalamic nucleus

14. Optic tract

15. Substantia nigra

16. Cerebral peduncle

17. Mammillary body
basal ganglia
What level is this section?
interventricular foramen
What level is this section?
anterior commissure
What level is this section?
What level is this section and what structures can be identified?
septal region
1. Septum pellucidum

2. Corpus callosum (body)

3. Lateral ventricle (anterior horn)
4. Caudate nucleus (head)

5. Internal capsule (anterior limb)
6. Septal nuclei

7. Putamen
8. Globus pallidus

9. Anterior commissure

10. Diagonal band (of Broca)

11. Anterior perforated substance

12. Nucleus accumbens

13. Nucleus basalis of Meynert
frontal region (Kluver Stain)
What level is this section?
What level is this section and what structures can be identified?
frontal region (Weigert stain)
1. Cingulate gyrus

2. Corpus callosum (body)

3. Corpus callosum (rostrum)
4. Caudate nucleus (head)

5. Internal Capsule (anterior limb)
6. Putamen

7. Gyrus rectus
8. Olfactory tract

9. Lateral ventricle (anterior horn)

10. Anterior cerebral artery
What section is this and what structures can be identified?
horizontal section
2. Caudate nucleus (head)

3. Septum pellucidum
4. Lat. vent. (anterior horn)

6. Fornix

7. Interventricular foramen
8. Interthalamic adhesion

9. Thalamus

10. IIIrd Ventricle

11. Posterior commissure

12. Internal capsule (anterior limb)

13. Putamen

14. Internal capsule (genu)

15. Globus pallidus

16. Internal capsule (posterior limb)
What level is this section and what structures can be identified?
temporal lobe with hippocampus
1. parahippocampal gyrus

2. occipitotemporal (fusiform gyrus)

3. inferior temporal gyrus
4. middle temporal gyrus

5. superior temporal gyrus

6. lateral sulcus (fissure)

7. hippocampus
8. dentate gyrus

9. fornix

10. caudate nucleus (tail)

11. thalamus

12. lateral geniculate nucleus

13. primary auditory cortex

14. lateral ventricle (inferior, or temporal, horn)
hypothalamus
What level is this section?
cervical enlargement of spinal cord
What level is this section?
thoracic spinal cord segment
What level is this section?
lumbo-sacral enlargement
What level is this section?
CT scans of epidural hematoma: axial (left) and coronal (right)
What does this image demonstrate?
CTscan of brain with left middle cerebral infarct, with (right) and without (left) contrast enhancement
What does this image demonstrate?
Coronal cut of brain with left middle cerebral artery infarct
What does this specimen demonstrate?
evolution of cortical infarct: a. normal; b. acute neuronal ischemic change; c. neutrophil infiltration; d. macrophage infiltration
What does this series of photomicrographs demonstrate?
photomicrograph of hemorrhagic infarct in brain
What is this an image of?
brain slice showing "older" infarct
What does this specimen demonstrate?
Photomicrographs of a resolving cerebral infarct, showing a cavity formed by liquifactive necrosis with reactive astrocytes in the wall (left) and residual macrophages within the cavity (right).
What does this image demonstrate?
CT scan of brain from hypertensive patient with intracerebral hemorrage
What does this image demonstrate?
CN VI
Abducens
caudal pons
ipsilateral rectus
CN XI
spinal accessory
anterior horn medulla to C5
sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
Amygdala
anteromedial temporal lobe
just beneath uncus
core of the major limbic scircuits with hippocampus
Angular Gyrus
Language fx
ansa lenticularis
projection from globus pallidus to thalamus
anterior cerebral artery
supplies orbital cortex and medial surface of frontal and parietal lobes
anterior commissure
connects temporal cortices
anterior corticospinal tract
smaller than lateral corticospinal tract
end on axial motor neurons
anterolateral system
spinothalamic tract and associated fibers carrying pain and temperature to thalamus and reticular formation
aqueduct of sylvius
connects third and fourth ventricles
area postrema
hole in the bbb near the obex
babinski's
damage to corticospinal tract
basal ganglia
striatum
globus pallidus
substancia nigra
subthalamic nucleus
nucleus basalis
cholinergic neurons in substancia inominata
brachium of inferior colliculis
auditory fibers from inferior colliculus to medial geniculate nucleus
brachium of superior colliculus
retinal afferents passing over medial geniculate nucleus to bypass lateral geniculate nucleus to project to superior colliculus
Broca's area
language function center usually in the left inferior frontal gyrus
brodmann's areas
46 divisions of neocortex
c fibers
unmyelinated PNS axons including nociceptor fibers
calcarine sulcus
temporal to occipital lobe
visual cortex
brodman's area 17
catecholamines
neurotransmitters synthesized from tyrosine
dopamine
norepinepherine
epinepherine
cerebellar cortex
molecular layer
purkinje cells
granule cells
flocullonodular lobe
flocullus and nodulus associated with vestibular system and eye movements
cerebral peduncle
tightly packed corticospinal, corticobulbar and corticopontine tracts
cingulate gyrus
upper part of limbic lobe
clark's nucleus
nucleus dorsalis
T1-L3
posterior spinocerebellar tract with stretch and mechanoreceptor info
corticobulbar tract
corticospinal tract for cranial nerve nuclei
corticopontine tract
cortex to basal pons to contralateralt cerecellar hemispheres via middle CP
corticospinal tract
principal pathway for skilled volitional movements
cuneate tubercle
dorsolateral midmedulla overlying cuneate nucleus
delta fibers
thinly myelinated sensory fibers including fast pain
dentate nucleus
largest and most lateral cerebellar nuclei
afferents form superior CP ending in thalamus
diencephalon
pineal
habenula
thalamus
subthalamic nucleus
retina and optic nerve/tract
hypothalamus
neurohypophisis
dorsal longitudinal fasciculus
ascending and descending fibers running through periaquaductal and perventricula grey matter
connects hypothalamus to reticular formation and preganglionic autonomic neurons
dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus
parasympathetic efferent nucleus in rostral medulla for thoracic and abdominal viscera
edinger-westphal nucleus
efferent neurons for direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes near midline of oculomotor nucleus
entorhinal cortex
cortex in anterior parahippocampal gyrus
major source of afferents to hippocampus
epithalamus
dicephalon that includes pineal gland and habenula
CN VII
facial nerve
emerges anterolaterally at pontomedullary junction
Facial Nucleus
LMN in caudal pons with axons looping around the abducens nuclei
Fasciculus cuneatus
tactile and proprioception from the arm to the nucleus cuneatus
Fasciculus gracilis
tactile and proprioception from the leg and terminating in the nucleus gracilis
fastigial nucles
most medial deep cerebellar nucleus projecting to vestibular nucleus and reticular formation
fornix
paired fiber bundle with hippocampal efferents
globus pallidus
wedge shaped basal ganglia nucleus medial to putamen
recieves input from striatum and subthalamic with the external segment going to the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment going to the thalamus
internal segment
habenula
dorsomedial mound on caudal thalamus derived from embryonic diencephalon
dentate gyrus
subdivision of the hippocampal formation with afferents from entorhinal; cortex and efferents to hippocampal pyramidal cells
histamine
monoamine neurotransmitter used by hypothalamus in sleep wake cycles. also can promote sensitization in nociceptors.
CNXII
hypoglossal nerve emerging from preolivary sulcus in rostral medulla
hypoglossal nucleus
LMN innervating ipsilateral tongue muscles located near the midline of rostral medulla
hypoglossal trigone
elevation in floor of fourth ventricle formed by the hypoglossal nucleus
Anterior hypothalamus
includes suprachiasmatic, supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
innervates neurohypophysis
Posterior hypothalamus
includes mammillary and posterior nuclei and projects to the thalamus and tegmentum
tuberal hypothalamus
includes dorsomedial, ventromedial and arcuate nuclei
secretes releasing and inhibitory factors into the pituitary portal system
inferior cerebellar peduncle
input to cerebellum
receives contralateral ovilary fibers and other ipsilateral cerebellar afferents
inferior colliculus
caudal midbrain
relays auditory info from lateral mensicus to the medial geniculate nucleus via the inferior brachium
inferior frontal gyrus
opercular and triangular parts form broca's area (language fx)
inferior olivary nucleus
efferents form climbing fibers that enter contralateral cerebellum via inferior cerbellar peduncle
infundibulum
pituitary stalk connecting median emminence of hypothalamus to posterior pituitary
internal arcuate fibers
decussating fibers in the medulla made of either posterior column fibers forming the medial lemniscus or olivocerebellar fibers
anterior limb internal capsule
connects thalamus to prefrontal cortex
genu of internal capsule
connects thalamus to motor/premotor cortex
posterior limb of internal capsule
connects thalamus to motor and somatosensory cortex as well as desending corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts
retrolenticular internal capsule
connect thalamus and association cortex as well as upper part of optic radiations
sublenticular internal capsule
to and from temp-oral cortex including auditory radiation and lower part of optic radiation