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145 Cards in this Set

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What gives rise to:
1. neurons in the cerebral cortex
2. neuroglia
3. ependymal cells
4. Nuclear cell populations in the brainstem
Neurotubular Epithelium (CNS)
T/F Schwann cells produce myelin in the CNS & PNS
False
Schwann cells are not in the CNS
What can:
1. Phagocytize injured neuron processes
2. produce myelin for one nerve process at a time
3. contribute to the formation of nodes of Ranvier
Schwann cells
T/F Lloyd type III fibers are myelinated
True
Where are these cells developed from?
1. Adrenal medulla
2. Post ganglionic autonomic neurons
3. Schwann Cells
4. Dorsal root ganglion
Neural Crest cells
What does the fully developed proencephalon consist of?
1. Diencephalon
2. Telencephalon
3. Mesencephalon
4. Rhomencephalon
What is the developmental process that forms the neural tube called?
Neurulation
What condition may result from failure of closure of the POSTERIOR portion of the neural tube?
Spina Bifida
Where does the medulla develop from?
Portion of the secondary vesicle known as myencephalon
Are microglia categorized as true glial cells?
No, Macrophages
What glial cell has perivascular feet?
Fibrous astrocyte
What glial cells help form the choroid plexus?
Ependymal cells
What classification do sympathetic preganglionic axons fall into?
Type B
(preganglionic,motor)
What spinal cord lamina is considered to be the pain gauge?
II
Where are the preganglionic cells for the Sympathetic nervous system?
Intermediolateral gray column
Motor cells of the spinal cord are arranged somatopically; so that neurons which innervate the trunk would be found?
Medial to neurons which innervate the thigh
What does the central nucleus of Lamina IX innervate & where is it found?
Associated w/innervation of the diaphragm
Found in spinal cord levels C3,4,5
The Mesencephalic Nucleus of V is associated w/which sensory modality?
Proprioception (GSA)
The Spinal Nucleus of the trigeminal nerve is analogous to what nuclear group on the spinal cord?
Substantia gelatinosa
Where does the hypothalamus and thalamus develop from?
The Diencephalon
Sensory cell populations of the brainstem arise from which group of precursor cells?
Basalar plate (sensory)
Which plate gives rise to motor cell populations?
Alar plate
Why do large diameter neurons conduct impulses faster?
they are myelinated
Why is the developing nervous system beginning to fold on itself?
It is growing at a faster rate than the developing skull
What do Lamina VIII neurons form?
the interneuron pool
Which of the following is dependent on cellular energy?
a) facilitated diffusion
b) active transport
c) passive diffusion
d) ionophore mediated ionic movement
e) more than one of the above
Active transport only
What will happen if XCl is added to the extracellular fluid and it readily dissociates but only Cl- is permeable?
Cl will reach equilibrium
What is the primary ionic determinant of resting membrane potential?
Potassium
What does the resting membrane potential primarily result from?
Potassium permeability
What is the Nernst Potential?
The membrane potential needed to counteract the concentration gradient
What are the ion concentrations at the peak of the action potential?
PNa>PK>PCl
What blocks the voltage-gated sodium channel?
Tetrodotoxin
What is the absolute refractory period?
The time when the inactivation gates are closed
What increases conduction velocity?
Myelination & Increased axon diameter
What tends to decrease synaptic transmission?
1. Adding a calcium channel blocker
2. Partially depolarize the axon terminal prior to arrival of the action potential
3. Depletion of synaptic vesicles
What ion increased permeability results in an EPSP?
Sodium & Potassium
What is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord?
Glycine
Where are IPSPs primarily located?
On the cell body
What are the properties of a typical EPSP?
a. It is about 20 mV in amplitude
b. Lasts about 2 microseconds
c. Is apt to accur on a dendritic spine
What are the properties of calcium spikes?
May be generated in dendrites
Are essentially giant EPSPs
What is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?
Glutamate
What are the catecholamines?
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
T/F
A receptor potential
Increases as stimulus strength increases
Gives rise to a frequency of action potentials
Tends to decrease in amplitude with a constant stimulus strength
T
What is the Nernst potential for sodium?
+50 mV
Which cranial nerve nucleus is associate w/activity of the pupillary constrictor muscles?
CNIII -> Edger-Westing nucleus
The sternocleidomastoid muscle and muscles of the pharynx would receive motor information from which brainstem nuclear group?
Nucleus Ambiguous
The solitary nucleus is associated with which two types of sensory activity?
SVA & GVA
Which nucleus in the spinal cord contains pre-ganglionic sympathetic cells?
Intermedio-lateral nucleus
Which brainstem nuclear population is associated with the parasympathetic output of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Inferior Salivary Nucleus
The Nucleus Dorsalis of Clarke contains cells associated w/what function?
Proprioception
Which trigeminal nuclear population is associated specifically with touch and pressure sensation?
Chief Sensory Nucleus of V
Fiber tracts in the white matter of the spinal cord are grouped together in regions referred to as ______
Faciculi??
Which nucleus is associated w/movement of the tongue?
Motor nucleus of XII
List 4 cranial nerves which send information to the mesencephalic nucleus of V1
CN VII
CN IV
CN VI
CN III
List 4 nuclear groups associated with the facial nerve and the specific function of each
Superior Salivary (Secretomotor to salivary glands)
Solitary Nucleus (taste)
Mesencephalic Nucleus of VII (Proproception)
Motor Nucleus of VII (Facial expression muscles)
Fibers for the transmission of sharp well localized painful stimuli fall into what Lloyd classification?
What is the specific thalamic nucleus which relays general sensations from the head to the cerebral cortex?
Ventroposterior medial
What is the only sensation which does not pass to the thalamus on it's way to the cerebral cortex?
a. pain
b. unconscious proprioreception
c. taste
d. smell
e. crude touch
D. Smell does NOT pass through the thalamus
What does the inverse stretch (golgi tendon) reflex demonstrate?
1. Autogenic inhibition
2. Reciprocal inhibition
3. Recurrent inhibition
What happens at the peak of the overshoot, regarding permeability?
Sodium & Potassium permeabilities are both higher than at rest
During synaptic transmission
a. inhibitory neurotransmitters are primarily released onto nerve terminals
b. synapsin directly binds to calcium
c. voltage-gated calcium channels open allowing for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles
d. excitatory neurotransmitters may increase permeability to potassium and chloride in the post synaptic cell
e. acetylcholine is the most likely transmitter found at central nervous system synapses
C. Voltage gated calcium channels opening allows for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles
A patient with degeneration of the premotor cortex (secondary motor cortex) in the left hemisphere will
a. exhibit bilateral paralysis
b. exhibit right side paralysis
c. exhibit left side paralysis
d. exhibit less discrete movements on the right side
e. exhibit less discrete movements on the left side
D. Exhibit less discrete movements on the right side
The period of afterhyperpolarization is defined by
a. the period whe the sodium activation gate is closed
a. the period whe the sodium activation gate is closed
b. the period whe the sodium inactivation gate is open
c. the period whe the sodium inactivation gate is open
d. the period whe the potassium gate is open
D. The period when the potassium gate is open

(the inactivation gate is closed & the activation gate is open)
The Basal Nuclei develop from neurotubular epithelium and are a portion of?
a. diencephalons
b. telecephalon
c. metencephalon
d. mesencephalon
e. myelencephalon
B. Telencephalon
What type of neuron fiber is a type C fiber?
slow
An autosomal dominant condition in which patients develop cafe au lait spots, Lisch nodules, and multiple tumors in nerves is:
Neurofibromatosis
The internal capsule is part of a?
Projection Pathway
The majority of the arterial blood supply to the lateral surface of the cerebral cortex is provided by?
Middle cerebral artery
Broadman's areas 44&45 are also known as?
Brocas motor speech area
An individual who has difficulty reading and writing certain words may hav injured the?
Angular Gyrus
A primary difference between capillaries of the brain vs other areas of the body is?
They have no fenestrations
What Broadman number is given to the receptive speech area of the cortex?
22
Tracking motion of the eyes is controlled by which specific cortical area?
Broadman's area #4
The superior petrosal sinus drains the cavernous sinus into the?
Junction of the transverse and sigmoid sinus
All of the openings transport cerebrospinal fluid from the 4th ventricle, except?

a) foramen of Luchka
b) Opening of the central spinal canal
c) foramen Magiendi
d) arachnoid granulations
d)

arachnoid granulations do not transport CSF from the 4th ventricle
Which spinal cord lamina is considered to be the pain gate?
II
Motor cells of the spinal cord are arranged in such a manner that neurons which innervate the foot would be found?
Lateral to neurons that innervate the trunk
Motor cells for flexors and extensors of the hand or foot are found in which specific cell population?
Retrodorsolateral
A laceration of the spinal cor, just into its lateral surface would most likely injure?
Ascending tracts
Ataxia is a loss of muscular synergy. Injury to which pathways could lead to ataxia?
Posterior Spinocerebellar tract
Dorsal Columns
All of the following are associated with the reticular formation except?

a) head posture due to audio or visual stimuli
b) cortical arousal
c) sleep-awake cycles
d) evaluation to the quality of sensory stimuli
a)
Anterior horn cells, alpha motoneurons and final common pathway all describe cells of which lamina?
Lamina IX
What neurotransmitter substance turns off alpha motoneurons?
Glycine
Why is pain considered a noxious stimuli?
Because it is responsible for detecting tissue damage
Gamma motoneurons stimulate?
Muscle spindle fibers
What tract arises from the cerebral cortical hemisphere of the opposite side which it lies in the spinal cord, due to 90% crossing in the medullary pyramids?
Lateral Corticospinal Tract
What are Golgi Tendon Organ Afferents?
Ibeta fibers
Neural crest cells give rise to?
THINGS in the PNS***

i.e. schwann cells, DRG, malanocytes
Neural Tubular cells give rise to?
THINGS in the CNS***
All of the following is true of oligodendrocytes, except?

a) exist as satellite cells in the grey matter
b) produce myelin in the CNS
c) may line up alongside blood vessels
d) have phagocytic capability
d)
Oligodendrocytes do not have phagocytic capability (schwann cells do)
Myasthenia gravis is disease which affects the ability of the neurotransmitter to bind to the motor end plate receptors of skeletal muscles. What may be useful in reversing this?
Neostigmine
According to the Gasser Erlanger nerve classification the fastest conducting fibers are?
Aalpha
What is the primary ascending pathway for pain?
The lateral spinothalmic tract
Where are the preganglionic cells for the sympatheti nervous system located?
Intermediolateral gray column
The sulcus limitans divides the spinal cord into?
Groups of sensory and motor cell bodies
Motor cells of the spinal cord are arranged somatotopically so that neurons which innervate the foot would be found?
Lateral to neurons which innervate the trunk
The second order cell (bodies) of the dorsal column medial leminiscus system are found?
In the nucleus gracilis and cuneatus
What pathway is associated with coordinating trunk posture with head movement as a result of visual and auditory stimuli?
tectospinal pathway
What pathway is associated with quadrapedal movement?
Rubrospinal pathway
Motor cells for extensor activity are located in what position to motor cells for flexor activity?
anterior

Pons do extensor
medulla does flexor
What separates the fasciculus cuneatus and fasciculus gracilis?
The dorsal intermediate sulcus
The reticulospinal pathway is associated with all of the following except?

a) sleep awake cycles
b) cortical arousal
c) response to aversive stimuli
d) audio-visual stimulation
d)
Where are almost all third order sensory cell bodies found?
In the THALAMUS
A fiber tract associated with the transmission of information in regard to unconsious proprioception for the lower extremity?
Fasciculus Gracilis
What common pharmacological agent inhibits the breakdown of Acetylcholine and can be useful in the treatment of myasthenia gravis?
Neostigmine
The central nucleus of lamina IX innervates what?
the diaphram C345
Which cranial nerves are associated with the nucleus ambiguous?
IX X XI
Which cranial nerves are associated with the solitary nucleus?
VII IX X
Which spinal cord lamina is considerd the pain gate?
Lamina II
Which Lamina contain neurons for the ANS?
Lamina VII
The sulcus limitans divides the spinal cord into?
Groups of sensory and motor cell pathways
Motor cells for flexors and extensors of the hand or foot are found in which specific cell population?
Retrodorsolateral
Preganglionic ANS of the spinal cord are found in which neuron location?
Intermediolateral
The majority of interneurons are found in which gray horn lamina?
Lamina VIII
What happens to the distal portion of the neuron after injury?
It degenerates
Which classification of neurons is specific for sensory neurons?
The Lloyd Classification
IPSPs usually result in?
The elevation of threshold potentials
The brainstem nuclear group that receives information in regards to taste sensation is called?
Solitary Nucleus
All of the following are associated with lower motoneuron disease, except:

a) rigidity
b) atrophy of disuse
c) absence of reflexes
d) flaccid paralysis
a) rigidity

(Upper motoneuron lesion)
What type of stimuli do muscle spindles respond to?
Stretch
What kind of sensations do proprioreceptors monitor?
1) posture 2) touch 3) kinesthesia 4) pressure
Posture and kinesthesia
Al of the followin are true of pain receptors except:

a) monitored by exteroreceptors
b) a somatic sensation
c) monitored unconsciously
d) can play a role in reflexes
?
All of the following are associated with disruption of the corticospinal pathway except:

a) spasticity
b) hyperactive reflexes
c) atrophy of disuse
d) clasp knife reflex
?
Association fibers carry cortical information from?
Anterior to Posterior cortical areas
The specific function of teh supplementary motor cortex (Broadman #8) is:
Conjugate eye movement
The inverted distorted humanoid somatotopic representations over the primary motor and sensory gyri is referred to as?
Homunculus
Damage to cortical cell populations on the superior medial pole of the pre-central gyrus would most likely affect?
Movement of the lower extremity
Injury to Wernickes area (broadman #22) would?**
Interfere with the understanding of language
Wernicke’s Receptive speech Area (22) Lesions -► Receptive aphasia loss of the ability to comprehend. Words just sound like noise.
What is the inability to recognize an object simply by feeling its shape and texture?
Astereognosia
The primary difference between capillary endothelium of the brain and the capillaries of the rest of the body?
There are tight junctions w/little or no fenestrations in brain capillaries
The anterior and middle lobes of the cerebellum are separated by?
Primary fissure
The archicerebellum consists of what structures?
1)culmen
2)nodulus
3)lingula
4)flocculus
?
Postural musculature is regulated by which cerebellar lobe?
?
Together the putamen and the globus pallidus are referred to as the?
Lentiform nucleus
The nucleus accumbens plays a role in control of?
Muscles of facial expression
What is a characteristic hyperkinetic sign of parkinsons disease?
Resting tremor
The amygdala is a nuclear region which modulates?
Movements associated with mating
Which area does not participate actively in movement when we are asleep?
cerebellum
The second order cells for taste sensation arise in what nucleus?
solitary nucleus
What is the primary cause of ageusia?
?
The reverse stretch GTO reflex?
Is a result of excessive contraction of working muscle
T/F
Pain is monitored unconsciously
False
very conscious
The superior saggital sinus is formed by
dural folding
The cochlea apparatus is arranged in such a way that?
new tones are detected only in the apical region
The dominant cerebral hemisphere is usually defined by?
The side responsible for generating language