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159 Cards in this Set

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nerves originating from the brain that communicate with other body parts
cranial nerves
nerves originating from the spinal chord that communicate with other body parts
spinal nerves
Nerves that have only fibers of sensory neurons, conducting impulses into the brain or spinal cord are called _____ ______.
Sensory nerves
Nerves that have only fibers involved in motor control are called ______ _______.
Motor nerves
Fibers carry motor impulses outward from the brain to the muscles used in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and forming facial expressions.
Special somatic efferent fibers
Fibers that carry sensory impulses inward to the brain from olfactory and taste receptors.
Special visceral afferent fibers
Fibers that carry sensory impulses inward to the brain from the receptors of sight, hearing, and equilibrium.
Special somatic afferent fibers
Cranial nerves that are MOTOR nerves
Cranial nerves III, IV, VI, XI, XII

contain only axons of motor neurons as they leave the brain stem
Cranial nerves that are SENSORY nerves
Cranial nerves I, II, VIII
Cranial nerves that include BOTH somatic and autonomic motor axons.
Cranial Nerves V, VII, IX, and X
Cranial nerve that emerges from the nose
Cranial nerve I - Olfactory
Cranial nerve that emerges from the inner ear
Cranial Nerve VIII - Vestibulocochlear
Cranial nerves that emerge from the brain stem
Cranial Nerves III - XII
Cranial nerve that emerges from the spinal cord
Cranial Nerve XI
Cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in ______, ______ (outside/inside) the brain.
ganglia, outside the brain

EXCEPT all proprioceptive sensory neurons in the head region have their cell bodies in the mesencephalic (ganglion) nucleus
Cell bodies of motor neurons are located in ______, ______ (outside/inside) the brain.
lie in nuclei, within the brain
Contains axons that conduct nerve impulses for olfaction, the sense of smell
Cranial Nerve I - Olfactory
Sensory
Contains axons that conduct nerve impulses for vision.
Cranial Nerve II - Optic
Sensory
Nerve that raises the eyelids and eyeball. Also adjusts the amount of light entering the eyes (constricts the pupils), and focus the lenses.
Cranial Nerve III - Oculomotor
Motor
Sensory fibers of this nerve transmit impulses associated with proprioceptors.
Cranial Nerve III - Oculomotor
Motor
The smallest cranial nerves
Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear
Which cranial nerves arise from the midbrain?
Cranial Nerves III & IV
Cranial nerve that move the superior oblique muscles of the external eye muscles
Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear
Motor
Largest of the cranial nerves and arises from the pons.
Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal
Both
Different sensory components of the Trigeminal Nerve (V).
opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular divisions
Cranial nerves that originate from the pons near the medulla oblongata. They supply motor impulses to the lateral rectus muscle of the external eye muscle.
Cranial Nerve VI - Abducens
Motor
Which cranial nerves arise from the pons?
V, VI, VII
Sensory branches of this cranial nerve are associated with taste receptors on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
Cranial Nerve VII - Facial
Mixed
Motor fibers of this cranial nerve function in the ANS by stimulating secretions from tear glands and certain salivary glands.
Cranial Nerve VII - Facial
Mixed
Cranial nerves that arise from the medulla oblongata
Cranial Nerve VIII, IX, X
XI (medulla oblongata and spinal cord), XII
Cranial nerve that arises from the medulla oblongata and spinal cord and has both cranial and spinal branches.
Cranial Nerve XI
Sensory fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses associated with sense of equilibrium.
Cranial Nerve VIII - Vestibulocochlear
Sensory
Sensory fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses associated with sense of hearing.
Cranial Nerve VIII - Vestibulocochlear
Sensory
Sensory fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses from the pharynx, tonsils, posterior tongue, and carotid arteries.
Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal
Both
Motor fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses to salivary glands and to muscles of the pharynx used in swallowing. Gag reflex.
Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal
Both
Sensory fibers of this cranial nerve supply the taste buds.
Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal
Both
Somatic motor fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses to muscles associated with speech and swallowing.
Cranial Nerve X - Vagus
Mixed
Autonomic motor fibers transmit impulses to the viscera of the thorax and abdomen.
Cranial Nerve X - Vagus
Mixed
Sensory fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses from the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of the thorax and abdomen.
Cranial Nerve X - Vagus
Both
Motor fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses to muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx.
Cranial Nerve XI - Accessory - Cranial branch
Motor
Motor fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses to muscles of the neck and back (trapezius and SCM); some proprioceptor input.
Cranial Nerve XI - Accessory - Spinal branch
Motor
Motor fibers of this cranial nerve transmit impulses to muscles that move the tongue in speaking, chewing and swallowing. Some proprioceptor input.
Cranial Nerve XII - Hypoglossal
Motor
How many pairs of spinal nerves originate from the spinal cord?
31 pairs:
8 pairs of Cervical Nerves
12 pairs Thoracic Nerves
5 pairs Lumbar Nerves
5 pairs of Sacral Nerves
1 pair of Coccygeal Nerves
Which vertebra marks the end of the spinal cord?
L1
This ganglion contains cell bodies of the sensory neurons whose axons conduct impulses inward from the peripheral body parts.
dorsal root ganglion
Area of skin that sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate.
dermatome
Consists of axons from the motor neurons whose cell bodies lie within the gray matter of the cord.
ventral root
Innervates posterior 1/3 of the tongue
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
gag reflex
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
Controls muscles that keep your head on straight.
Accessory (XI)
cranial nerve that innervates lateral rectus of the eye
Abducens (VI)
Innervates region of tongue where there's bitter taste receptors
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
- posterior 1/3 of tongue
carries 75% of parasympathetic nerves
Vagus (X)
Which cranial nerves go through the tongue?
Facial - anterior of tongue
Glossopharyngeal - posterior tongue
Hypoglossal - moves the tongue

(Taste receptors go through Facial, Glossopharyngeal & Vagus, p. 450)
innervates the diaphragm and allows you to breath
Phrenic nerve
If sever spinal chord at C2 what will happen?
Phrenic nerve affected, can't talk (need to be hold your breath to talk)
If injury is lower than cervical or brachial plexus, can a person talk?
yes
When you hit the "funny bone" it's cuz you hit this nerve.
Ulnar nerve runs through the olecranon process
This nerve goes through the carpal tunnel
Median Nerve
If your whole hand hurts what is most likely affected?
brachial plexus (not the carpal tunnel)
controls muscles that allows you to stand up
basoganglia
Conducts motor impulses to muscle fibers of the diaphragm
phrenic nerves, p. 420
What is the pnemonic device for the cranial nerves?
"Some Say Merry Money But My Brother Says Bad Boys Marry Money"

On Old Olympus Towering Top A Fat Assed German Viewed Some Hops
Which nerve goes directly to the limbic system?
Olfactory (I)

why odors elicit emotional response
Which neurons of the ANS are cholinergic?
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic & parasympathetic divisions.

Postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division.

Cholinergic = secretes acetylcholine
p. 428
Which neurons of the ANS are adrenergic?
Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (most) secrete norepinephrine.
Which receptors are muscarinic receptors in the ANS?
Membranes of effector cells at ends of:
all postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers
& cholinergic sympathetic fibers, p. 429

Excitatory & relatively slow.
Which receptors are nicotinic receptors in the ANS?
In synapses between the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways.

Excitatory & Rapid.

(Receptors at neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscles are also nicotinic).
What are the two types of adrenergic receptors?
adrenergic - secretes norepinephrine

two types:
alpha
beta
What are the two types of cholinergic receptors?
nicotinic
muscarinic
The sympathetic preganglionic fibers are _______ (long/short) and are _________ (cholinergic /adrenergic), and bind to ________ receptors.
Sympathetic preganglionic fibers are:
short
cholinergic
binds to nicotinic receptor
The sympathetic postganglionic fibers are _______ (long/short) and are _________ (cholinergic /adrenergic), and bind to ________ receptors.
Sympathetic postganglionic fibers are:
long
adrenergic
The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are _______ (long/short) and are _________ (cholinergic /adrenergic), and bind to ________ receptors.
Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are:
long
cholinergic
nicotinic
The parasympathetic postganglionic fibers are _______ (long/short) and are _________ (cholinergic /adrenergic), and bind to ________ receptors.
Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers are:
short
cholinergic
muscarinic
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are found on which fibers?
sympathetic preganglionic short fibers
parasympathetic preganglionic long fibers
somatic fibers
Muscarinic cholinergic receptors are found on which nerve fibers?
parasympathetic postganglionic short fibers
What are the major branches emerging from the brachial plexus?
Musculocutaneous
Axillary
Radial
Median
Ulnar
What causes color blindness?
Retina lacks some photopigments that enable cone cells to capture certain incoming wavelenghts of light.
Pain from which region of the body is not usually referred?
Pain originating in the parietal layers of thoracic and abdominal membranes - parietal pleura, parietal pericardium, or parietal peritoneu- is usually not referred.
Thin, myelinated nerve fibers that conduct impulses rapidly, at velocities up to 30 meters per second. Associated with sensations of sharp pain that seems to originate in a local area of skin.
acute pain fibers (A-delta fibers)
Thin, unmyelinated nerve fibers that conduct impulses at 2 meters per second. These impulses are dull, aching pain sensation that may be widespread and difficult to pinpoint.
chronic pain fibers (C fibers)
- felt deeper in the tissues as well as in skin.
Visceral pain fibers are usually carried on _______ fibers.
C fibers
Which cranial nerves reach the brain from pain impulses that originate from the tissues of the head?
Sensory fibers of the 5th, 6th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves
p. 443
Where do pain receptors reach the brain that originate from other parts besides the tissues of the head?
Travel on sensory fibers of spinal nerves.
They pass into the spinal cord through dorsal roots of these spinal nerves.
How are fast-conducting fibers processed?
When they enter the gray matter of the posterior horn, they synapse with long nerve fibers that cross over to the opposite side of the spinal cord in the anterior and lateral spinothalamic tracts (anterolateral system).
How are slow-conducting fibers processed?
When they enter the gray matter of the posterior horn, they pass through one or more interneurons before reaching the long fibers that cross over and ascend to the brain. P.443
Where do most pain fibers terminate in the brain?
reticular formation
then conducted on fibers of still other neurons to the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex
p. 443
Where do the fibers of the spinothalamic tract transmit pain and temperature information?
Directly to the thalamus
p. 443
Where does awareness of pain occur in the brain?
Awareness of pain occurs when pain impulses reach the thalamus - before they reach the cerebral cortex.

BUT the cerebral cortex judges the intensity of pain and locate its source; also responsible for emo and motor response.
An inhibiting substance released in the posterior horn to block pain.
enkephalins (neuropeptide) - suppresses both acute and chronic pain impulses

serotonin (monoamine) - stimulates other neurons to stimulate enkephalins
Condition in which the brain interprets a stimulus to one sense as coming from another. Example: "The sunset was salty"
synesthesia
p.447
What type of cells surround the olfactory receptor cells?
columnar epithelial cells
How many olfactory cells are there?
12 million
What kind of receptors do olfactory cells bind to?
Olfactory receptors respond to chemical stimulation that bind to
cell membrane receptors
The only nerve cells that are in direct contact with the outside environment.
olfactory receptor neurons
Where are the olfactory receptor cells located?
upper parts of the nasal cavity, the superior nasal conchae, and a portion of the nasal septum
Why is saliva necessary to taste?
A chemical to be tasted must dissolve in saliva.
P.448
Name the five primary taste sensations.
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
What characteristic of taste receptors helps maintain sense of taste with age?
Taste cells are modified epithelial cells and divide continually.
Taste cell functions for only about three days before it's replaced.
P. 450
Describe the taste nerve pathways.
Anterior 2/3 of the tongue - VII
Posterior 1/3 & back of mouth - IX
Base of tongue & pharynx - X
Drugs containing this substance squelch taste.
sulfur p. 451
Modified sweat glands that line the opening and tube of the ear.
ceruminous glands
- secrete wax (cerumen)
Reduces pressure from loud sounds that might otherwise damage the hearing receptors.
Tympanic Reflex, p. 452
Skeletal muscles are effectors in the tympanic reflex.
Tensor tympani
Stapedius
Helps maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. Necessary for normal hearing.
Auditory Tube, p. 453
What can cause hearing loss?
Conductive hearing loss mostly common. Changes in the tympanic membrane or auditory ossicles can block hearing.
- tympanic membrane may harden as result of disease
- injury may tear or perforate tympanic membrane
Where are the organs of static equilibrium located?
In the membranous labyrinth inside the vestibule of two expanced chambers:
Utricle
Saccule
p.459
What are the structures for dynamic equilibrium?
Three bony semicircular canals that lie at right angles to each other. They approximate the three body planes.
Crista ampullaris
The window of the eye that helps focus light rays
Cornea
The melanin of these cells absorbs excess light and helps keep the inside of the eye dark.
Melanocytes -
Choroid coat contains pigment-producing melanocytes
Name the structures of the outer tunic.
cornea (anterior sixth)
sclera (posterior 5/6ths) - white portion eye
Structures of the middle tunic
choroid coat
ciliary body
iris
What happens to the lens when ciliary muscle fibers contract?
Lens thicken
view closer objects
What happens to the lens when ciliary muscle fibers relax?
Lens thins
to focus on distant objects
When ciliary muscle contracts, the suspensory ligaments _____ (relax or are taut).
When ciliary muscles contract, the suspensory ligaments are relaxed.
To focus on a distant object, the ciliary muscles ______ (relax/contract).
relax
lies between the cornea and the lens
iris
Structure through which the aqeous humor drains.
scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm)
These muscles control the size of the pupil, through which light passes
circular set
radial set
p. 468
Which muscles of the pupil are activated in dim light?
Radial muscles of the iris contract
- pupils dilate
Which muscles of the pupil are activated in bright light?
Circular muscles of the iris contract
- pupils constrict
Where is the retina located?
inner tunic
region of the retina that produces the sharpest vision
fovea centralis in the macula lutea, p. 469
This area of the eye is the "blind spot"
optic disk - lacks receptor cells
If the eyeball is too long, what is the result?
nearsightedness
What kind of lens do you need to compensate for nearsightedness?
Concave surfaces that focus images farther from the front of the eye treat nearsightedness (myopia).
What kind of lens do you need to compensate for farsightedness?
Convex surfaces that focus the images closer to the front of the eye.
If eye is too long, the focus point of images is _______ (in front or back?) the retina?
in front
If the eye is too short, the focus point of images is _______ (in front or back?) of the retina
back
What is astigmatism?
defect in the curvature of the cornea or the lens
Which receptor cells provide vision in dim light?
Rods - hundreds of times more sensitive to light than cones.
Produces colorless vision
Rods
Produces color vision
Cones
Do we have more rods or cones?
100 million rods
3 million cones
Which photoreceptors provide sharp images? Why?
Cones provide sharp images.
- has separate sensory nerve fibers that transmit impulses from cones to the brain
- brain is able to pinpoint the stimulation more accurately

Rods produce more general outlines of objects.
- has a single sensory nerve fiber that transmits impulses from several rods to the brain
True or False:
The concentration of cones decreases in areas farther away from the macula lutea, whereas the concentration of rods increases in these areas.
True, p. 473
When you go from dark to sudden bright light, why do the eyes hurt?
Most of the rhodopsin decomposes in response to the bright light (rhodopsin --> releases opsin), p. 475
How does deficiency in Vitamin A cause nightblindness?
Too little vitamin A in diet reduces the amount of retinal, impairing rhodopsin production and sensitivity of the rods p. 475
Why are people colorblind?
they lack a cone type (that can distinguish a particular color)
Damage to the right visual cortex (or right optic tract) will cause sight will be lost where?
temporal side of the right eye and
nasal side of the left eye

(fibers from the nasal (medial) half of each retina cross over, wheras the temporal (lateral) sides do not), p. 476
Damage to the central portion of the optic chiasma will cause sight to be lost where?
Central portion of the optic chiasma is where fibers from the nasal sides of the eyes cross over, so it would blind the nasal sides of both eyes.
How do you get glaucoma?
Glaucoma develops when rate of aqueous humor formation exceeds the rate of its removal.
The three auditory ossicles
malleus
incus
stapes
p.451
What is conductive deafness?
impairment in hearing caused by interference with transmission of vibrations to the inner ear

95% of cases of hearing loss
What is sensorineural deafness?
damage to the cochlea or the auditory nerve and its pathways causing hearing impairment
only muscle in the body that can move in all vectors
tongue
Why is the cornea transparent?
It does NOT contain blood vessels and the collagenous fibers form unusually regular patterns.

Cornea is well supplied with nerve fibers associated with many pain receptors that have very low thresholds.
What kind of receptors (for sensing cold, heat or pain) are in the cornea?
Cold receptors are abundant in the cornea, but heat and touch receptors are not.
Structures of the outer (external) ear
auricle
external acoustic meatus
tympanic membrane
Structures of the middle ear
auditory ossicles: malleus, incus, stapes
oval window
skeletal muscles: tensory tympani & stapedius
the middle ear is also called
the tympanic cavity
What are the skeletal muscles attached to the auditory ossicles? Where are they located?
in the middle ear:
tensor tympani
stapedius
(effectors in the tympanic reflex, p. 452)
connects the middle ear to the throat
auditory tube
structures of the inner ear
osseous labyrinth
membranous labyrinth

parts of the labyrinth:
cochlea
semicircular canals

vestibule
round window
spiral organ (organ of Corti)
bony chamber between the cochlea & semicircular canals that houses the membranous structures that serve both hearing and equilibrium
vestibule
Response to sympathetic & parasympathetic stimulatio: iris of the eye
Sympathetic - Dilation
Parasympathetic - Constriction
Response to sympathetic & parasympathetic stimulatio: tear gland
Sympathetic - slightly increased secretion
Parasympathetic - Greatly increased secretion
Which fibers in the optic tract cross over?
Fibers from the nasal (medial) half of each retina cross over.
(Temporal or lateral sides DO NOT)
Which fibers form the right optic tract?
Nasal (medial) half of left eye &
Temporal (lateral) half of right eye