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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Central Nervous System comprised of?
The brain and spinal cord.
What is the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) comprised of?
Cranial and spinal nerves.
What is the primary functional unit of the nervous system?
What do neurons do?
They receive impulses and send them to other cells.
Can neurons replicate?
No, neurons are nonmitotic - they do not replicate if irreversibly damaged.
What are the two cells of the nervous system?
Neurons and Neuroglia.
What is the function of Neuroglia?
Neuroglia provide support, nourishment and protection to the neurons.
Can Neuroglica replicate?
Yes, they are mitotic thus, primary tumors are found here.
Name three characteristics of Neurons:
Ability to influence other neurons, muscle cells & glandular cells.
What does a neuron consist of?
Cell body
Axon (myelinated/unmyelinated)
What is the function of a dendrite?
Receives impulses.
What is the function of an axon?
Carries nerve impulses.
Neuroglia are also known as ________ ________and neurons are the ________ ________.
Supporter cells.
Functional unit.
What are the functions of the Nervous System?
Nerve regeneration and nerve impulse.
Explain nerve regeneration:
A damaged axon attempts to repair itself by sprouting more synaptic terminals however if the cell body is damaged, the neuron is done.
Would you see regeneration in the CNS, PNS, both or neither?
Possibly in the PNS, the CNS does not regenerate.
What is a nerve impulse?
The initiation of a neuronal message which also involves the generation of an action potential.
What two ways is an action potential transmitted?
Electrically (hops node-to-node) AND Chemically (w/neurotransmitter)
How far does an action potential travel?
Until it reaches its target.
What is a synapse?
A junction between two neurons.
What are the essential structures of synaptic transmission?
Presynaptic terminal, synaptic cleft and a receptor site on the postsynaptic cell.
What are the two types of synapses?
Electrical and chemical.
What are the two types of Neurotransmitters?
What does excitatory mean?
Causes an increase in Na+ permeability, increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated.
What does inhibitory mean?
Increase in permeability of K+ and Cl-, decreasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated.
What does the Central Nervous System (CNS)consist of?
The brain and the spinal cord.
Where does the spinal cord begin and end?
It begins at the brainstem and ends at L1-L2.
What does an ascending tract do?
The ascending tracts carry information from the periphery to the brain.
What does a descending tract do?
The descending tract carries information from the brain to the body.
What are the two descending tracts called?
These, originate in the cerebral cortex:
Upper motor neurons.
What do the upper motor neurons influence?
Voluntary skeletal movement.
What if there were a lesion on the upper motor neurons?
It could cause weakness or paralysis, disuse atrophy, hyperreflexia and increased muscle tone (spasticity).
What do the lower motor neurons influence?
They are the final common pathway through which descending motor tracts incluence skeletal muscle.
Where are the lower motor neurons located?
They are located in the anterior horn of the spinal cord.
What if there were a lesion on the lower motor neuron?
It would cause weakness, paralysis, atrophy, hyporeflexia and muscle flaccidity.
What is a reflex arc?
Involuntary response to a stimulus - EXAMPLE - touching something hot and removing your hand.
If there is damage on the lower motor neurons, which side would this affect?
It would affect the same side.
What side would be affected if there was damage to the upper motor neurons?
The opposite side would be affected.
What are the three major parts of the brain?
What is the cerebrum responsible for?
Mental functioning, language, memory, judgment...
What is the brainstem responsible for?
Cell bodies of cranial nerves are here, conrols respiratory, cardiac, vasomotor funtion, sneeze, cough and swallowing....
What is the cerebellum for?
Coordinates voluntary movement, maintains body stability (vertigo) and equilibrium.
What are the four lobes of the Cerebrum?
Frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital.
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
Intellectual function and personality, skilled movements, voluntary movement and speech.