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50 Cards in this Set

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Typical Vertebrae

Body
Cylindrical bone mass
Main weight-bearing part
Typical Vertebrae

Intervertebral Disc
Thick ring of fibrocartilage
Vertebral column shock absorber
Typical Vertebrae

Interbody Joint
Formed by two vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc
Typical Vertebrae

Spinous Process
Most easily palpated through skin and muscle
Typically points posterior but may be inferior as well (especially thoracic)
Typical Vertebrae

Transverse Process
Lateral projections
Muscles and ligaments attachments
Typical Vertebrae

Vertebral Canal
Houses and protects spinal cord
Typical Vertebrae

Pedicles
Short thick projections of bone connecting body of vertebrae to each transverse process
Typical Vertebrae

Laminae
Thin plates of bone forming posterior wall of vertebral canal
Connect each transverse process to spinous process base
Typical Vertebrae

Superior and Inferior Articular Facets
Inferior facets of one vertbera articulate with superior facets of vertebra below it
Together they make a facet (apophyseal) joint
Help guide vertebral motion
Typical Vertebrae

Intervertebral Foramina
Between adjacent vertebrae
Passageways for nerve roots entering or exiting vertebral column
Cervical Vertebrae

Typical (C3-C7)
Transverse foramina: Holes for vertebral arteries heading to brain in the transverse processes
Bordered posterior-laterally by uncinate processes
Most spinous processes are bifid
Cervical Vertebrae

Atlas (C1)
Two large concave superior facets sit on top of lateral masses to accept occipital condyles, forming atlanto-occipital j.
Cervical Vertebrae

Axis (C2)
Functions as vertical axis of rotation for rotary movements between head and cervical region
Thoracic Vertebrae
Inferiorly projected spinous processes
Large posterior-laterally projected transverse processes
Facet (apophyseal) joints are aligned nearly in frontal plane
Lumbar Vertebrae
Facet joints in upper lumbar region are oriented close to sagittal plane, transition toward frontal plane in lower regions
Vertebral Segments and their planes
Cervical is triplanar
Thoracic is frontal
Lumbar is sagittal
Major ligaments

ligamentum flavum
Limits flexion
Major ligaments

supraspinous and interspinous ligaments
attaches between adjacent spinous processes from C7 to sacrum
Limits flexion
major ligaments

Intertransverse ligaments
limits contralateral sidebending (lateral flexion)
major ligaments

anterior longitudinal ligament
adds stability to vertebral column
Limits extension or excessive lordosis
major ligaments

posterior longitudinal ligament
stabilizes vertebral column
limits flexion
reinforces posterior annulus fibrosis
craniocervical region

Set of three articulations
atlanto-occipital joint, atlanto-axial joint, intracervical joint

most mobile area of entire vertebral column
craniocervical region

flexion and extension
85 degrees of cervical extension

45-50 degrees of cervical flexion
craniocervical region

axial rotation
allows visual field to approach 360 degrees

C1 and attached cranium rotate as fixed unit relative to axis
craniocervical region

lateral flexion
allows about 40 degrees of lateral flexion to each side
Motion guided by incline of facet joints
thoracolumbar region

flexion and extension
combined motion of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae allows about 85 degrees of forward flexion
Allows about 35-40 degrees of extension
thoracolumbar region

axial rotation
allows only about 35 degrees of horizontal plane rotation in either direction
thoracolumbar region

lateral flexion
limited to about 45 degrees in either direction
lumbosacral junction
articulation between L5 and S1, weight transferred to pelvis
Facet joints of L5-S1 are oriented close to frontal plane to prevent lower spine from translating downhill
sacroiliac joints
nutation is anterior rotation of sacrum relative to each ilium
counternutation is posterior rotation of sacrum relative to each ilium
Primary function is to transfer forces of body weight to pelvis
Innervation to craniocervical and trunk musculature

dorsal rami
dorsal rami form short nerves that innervate most muscles of posterior neck and trunk
Innervation to craniocervical and trunk musculature

ventral rami
form cervical, brachial, and lumbosacral plexus and innervate most muscles of anterior-lateral trunk and neck
anterior craniocervical (neck) muscles

superficial
sternocleidomastoid
anterior, middle, and posterior scalenes
anterior craniocervical (neck) muscles

deep
longus colli
longus capitis
rectus capitis anterior
rectus capitis lateralis
anterior craniocervical muscles

sternocleidomastoid
O: sternum and clavicle
I: mastoid process
A: flexion of head and neck, contralateral rotation of head and neck, lateral flexion of head and neck
N: spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI)
anterior craniocervical muscles

scalenes
O: transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae
I: first and second ribs
A: flexion of neck(anterior and middle scalenes, lateral flexion, assist with inspiration via elevation of first and second ribs
posterior craniocervical muscles

suboccipital muscles
obliquus capitis superior
obliquus capitis inferior
rectus capitis posterior minor
rectus capitis posterior major
posterior craniocervical extensors

superficial cervical extensors
splenius capitis: extension, lateral flexion, and ipsilateral rotation of head and neck
splenius cervicis: extension, lateral flexion, and ipsilateral rotation of neck
anterior muscles of trunk

matching pairs
rectus abdominis
external oblique
internal oblique
transverse abdominis
anteior muscles of trunk

rectus abdominis
O: pubis
I: xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7
I: intercostal nerves T7-T12
A: flexion of trunk, posterior pelvic tilt, increase intra-abdominal and intrathoracic pressure
anterior muscles of trunk

external oblique
O: lower eight ribs laterally
I: iliac crest and linea alba
A: flexion of trunk, posterior pelvic tilt, increase intra-abdominal and intrathoracic pressure, rotation of trunk to opposite side, lateral flexion of trunk
N: Intercostal nerves T8-T12
anterior muscles of trunk

internal oblique
O: inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia
I: ribs 9-12, linea alba, and rectus sheath
A: flexion of trunk posterior pelvic tilt, increase intra-abdominal and intrathoracic pressure, lateral flexion of trunk, rotation of trunk to same side
N: intercostal nerves T8-T12
anterior muscles of trunk

Transverse abdominis
O: inguinal ligament, thoracolumbar fascia, cartilages of ribs 6-12
I: linea alba, contralateral rectus sheaths
A: increase intra-abdominal pressure, increase tension in thoracolumbar fascia
N: intercostal nerves T7-T12
Other functionally associated muscles of anterior trunk

iliopsoas
combo of iliacus and psoas major, primary hip flexor and also plays role in other motions of trunk and pelvis
other functionally associated muscles of anterior trunk

quadratus lumborum
attaches inferiorly to iliac crest, and superiorly to the 12th rib and transverse processes of L1-L4
bilateral activation of this muscle results in extension of lumbar spine
posterior muscle groups of trunk
erector spinae
transversospinal muscles
short segmental group
posterior muscles of trunk

erector spinae
run up and down spine vertically to control extension and some fine tuning
consist of three thin columns of muscles: spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
posterior muscles of trunk

transversospinal muscles
semispinalis, multifidus, rotators
lie deep to erector spinae, course in oblique direction from one vertebra's transverse processes to spinous process of another
posterior muscles of trunk

actions of transversospinal muscles
All are extensors of the vertebral column
Most can produce contralateral rotation
the more horizontal and shorter the muscle the more potential to produce horizontal plane rotation
posterior muscles of trunk

short segmental group
intertransversarus, interspinales muscles
Assists with lateral flexion
Effective at giving fine control over vertebral column, vertical stability in sagittal and frontal planes
Essential for postural alignment with sensory feedback