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24 Cards in this Set

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Acetominophen [Tylenol}
antifever
mild to moderate pain
primary alternative to NSAIDS

hepatoxic in large doses
inhibits warfarin metabolism--> can cause warfarin to reach toxic levels
treat overdose with N-acetylcysteine
Aspirin [ASA, Acetylsalicylic Acid]

NSAID
treatment of mild to moderate pain associated with inflammation, tx of fever
anticoagulant (reduce risk of MI, stroke, colorectal cancer)

most serious effect= GI complaints, GI bleeding
discontinue 1 week prior to surgery
excreted in urine
contraindicted in children and adolescents--> Reye's Syndrome
contraindicated with vit K and peptic ulcer disease
NSAIDS
[Ibuprofen, Naproxen sodium (Aleve), meloxicam, toradol

COX 2-Inhibitors
treatement of moderate pain associated with inflammation, fever, arthritis

GI complaints, GI bleeding
take with food to decrease GI upset
contraindictated with peptic ulcer disease
monitor RENAL FUNCTION and UO with long-term use

caution with pt hx of heart failure, HTN, or MI
Tramadol

NO abuse potential
moderate to severe pain and chronic pain

S/E: drowsiness, dizziness, HA, n/v, comstipation
seizures have been reported
Hydromorphone [dilaudid]
moderate to severe pain, when needed for a prolonged time

tablet form in extended-release
RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION and bradycardia

constipation
overdose= narcan
morphine sulfate
[duramorph, MS contin, depodur]
relief of moderate to severe pain
DOC of MI pain (decreases workload of heart)
preanesthetic

RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
orthostatic hypotension
comstipation

contrainindication in patient's with GI obstruction

abused easily

overdose= narcan
Merperidine
[Demerol]
moderate to severe pain
pre-op sedation
*preferred OB analgesic

drowsiness, dizziness, respiratory depression, constipation, n/v
cause in elderly and debilitation disease

avoid in pt with hepatic or renal disease
overdose--narcan
Fentanyl
[duragesic, sublimaze]
short-acting moderate to severe pain
good when around-the-clock pain management is needed
breakthrough pain with cancer

patch form for chronic pain
constipation, dizziness, euphoria, hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, circulatory depression, cardiac arrest

overdose=narcan
Codeine
mild to moderate pain
antitussive and cough suppressant

less resp effects than others

dizziness, euphoria, drowsiness, constipation, hypotension, bradycardia, pruritis
Vicodin, Lortab, Percodan, Percocet, Oxycontin
mild to moderate pain

combined with NSAIDS, aspirin, acetominophen
constipation

monitor for hepotoxicity for long-term use with acetaminophen
Aminoglycosides
[gentamicin (garamycin), tobramycin (nebcin), neomycin, streptomycin
indicated for gram- infections
given parenterally
irreversible ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
baseline hearing test
peak and trough levels indicated
monitor BUN and creatinine levels
increase fluids 1500-2000 mL/day

GI complaints, rash, fever, dizziness, tinnitus, anaphylaxis
Cephalosporins
("cef"s)
indicated for gram- infections
contraindicated for pt who have had an anaphylactic allergic reaction to PCN

skin rashes, GI complaints
bleeding tendencies, IM injection pain, thrombphlebitis

monitor use in renal patients
Macrolides
[azithromycin, clarithromycin, erthromycin]
broad-spectrum

good alternative to PCN allergy
administer on empty stomach--> destroyed by gastric acid

contraindicated with liver disease

GI upset, suprainfections, heptotoxicity, dysrhythmias, ototoxicity, anaphylaxis
Penicillins
["cillin"s]
treatment of gram+ infections

give separately from aminoglycosides
generally well tolerated
monitor in renal patients

oral absorption limited by the presence of food, empty stomach preferred
Fluoroquinolones
[Ciprolfloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin]
treatment of gram- infection
generally not first-line

antacids, mineral supplements and multivitamins interfer

monitor BUN and creatinine
monitor I&O

GI complaints, dizziness, HA, sleep disturbances, suprainfections, phototoxicity, cardiotoxicity, tendon/joint toxicity

contraindicated in pregnancy and pt under 18

cipro DOC for anthrax
Sulfonamides
[bactrim, gantrisin, pediazole, silvadene, cetamide]
broad spectrum
often treatment of UTI

increase fluids to 2000-3000mL/day

GI complaints, skin rashes, suprainfections, crystalluria, renal damage, phototoxicity, hyperkalemia, blood dyscrasias, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, anapylaxis
Tetracyclines
["cycline"]
broad spectrum
take on empty stomach
strong affinity for calcium (don't administer with antacids)

contraindicated during pregnancy, lactation and children under 8

photosensitivity and GI disturbances common

GI compliants, skin rashes, suprainfections, phototoxicity, hepatoxicity, anaphylaxis
Antielminthics
[vermox, antiminth, pinworm capsules]
treat whole family
teach good personal hygiene, handwashing

adverse effects rare, possible GI complaints as the worms dies

not recommended during pregnancy or pt under 2
Antimalarials
[Plaquenil]
easier to prevent thatn treat it

GI compliants HA, agitation, photophobia, agranulocytosis, EKG changes
Antiprotozoals
[flagyl]
dual activity against bacteria and parasites

may cause dark or reddish discoloration of urine

GI complaints, HA, dizziness, thrombophelbitis, bone marrow suppression
VANCOmycin
SEVERE gram- infections

DOC for tx of MRSA

ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity
baseline hearing recommended
peak and trough levels
monitor BUN and creatinine

infuse over at LEAST 60 minutes on infusion pump and monitor BP ahd HR

Red Man Syndrome: flushing, hypotension, tachycardia
Daptomycin
reserved for serious skin, wound, abscess infection
Imipenem-cilastin
[Primaxin]
one of the broadest spectrums

low incident of adverse effects
Clindamycin
[Cleocin]
broad spectrum antibiotic

often for oral infections

rash, pruritis, difficultly swallowing