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57 Cards in this Set

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Triamcinoslone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Nasocort spray, Amcort
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym
NVD
Unpleasant taste, upset stomach
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset few days,
peak 3-4 days
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Mometasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Nasonex
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym
NVD
Unpleasant taste, upset stomach
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset few days,
peak up to 3 wks
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Fluticasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Flonase
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym
NVD
Unpleasant taste, upset stomach
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset 2 days,
peak 1=2 wks
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Flunisolide
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Flunisolide
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym
NVD
Unpleasant taste, upset stomach
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset few days,
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Beclomethasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Beclovent, Beconase
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
Dyspepsia
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset 5-7 days up to 3 wks,
peak up to 3 wks
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Triamcinoslone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Nasocort spray, Amcort
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym
NVD
Unpleasant taste, upset stomach
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset few days,
peak 3-4 days
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Mometasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Nasonex
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym
NVD
Unpleasant taste, upset stomach
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset few days,
peak up to 3 wks
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Fluticasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Flonase
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym
NVD
Unpleasant taste, upset stomach
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset 2 days,
peak 1=2 wks
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Flunisolide
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Flunisolide
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym
NVD
Unpleasant taste, upset stomach
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset few days,
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Beclomethasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Beclovent, Beconase
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
Dyspepsia
Nursing consd: for chronic asthma, seasonal or perennial rhinitis
nasal spray
onset 5-7 days up to 3 wks,
peak up to 3 wks
use regular peak monitoring to determine respiratory status
Preg. C
Loratadine (Claritin)
antihistamine
Claritin
s.e: drowsiness
nurse. consd.:
management of seasonal rhinitis
avoid alcohol, other CNS depressants
take on empty stomach, 1 hr b4 or 2 hrs after meals
onset- 1-3 hrs, peak 8-12 hrs, duration greater than or equal to 24 hrs
Rx/OTC; preg. B
Fexofenadine (Allegra)
antihistamine
s.e: drowsiness
nurse. consd.:
management of rhinitis, allergy symptoms, chronic idiopathic urticaria
avoid alcohol, other CNS depressants
60 mg tablet, onset w/in 1 hr. peak 2-3 hrs, duration
12 hrs
180 mg tablet, duration 24 hrs
Rx/OTC; preg. C
Cetirizine HCI (Zyrtec)
Antihistamine
s.e.: drowsiness, fatique, dry mouth,
Relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis
relief of perennial allergic rhinitis caused by molds, animal dander, and other allergens
avoid alcohol
Rx; preg B
Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril)
antihistamine
s.e.: drowsiness, dry mouth
nurs. consd:
tmt of pruritus, pre-op anxiety, post-op nausea and vomiting, to potentiate opioid analgesics, sedation
-PO; onseet 15-30 min, duration 4-6 hrs
-avoid use of alchohol, other CNS depressants
-teach pt. dizziness/drowsiness may occur, use caution in potentially hazardous activities
-Rx; preg C
Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Analgesics-nonopioid
s.e.: anemia (long-term use)
Liver and kidney failure (high doses)
N. C.:
tmt of mild pain and fever
PO; onset less than 1 hr, peak 1/2-2 hrs, duration 4-6 hrs
rectal: onset slow, pk 1-2 hrs, duration 3-4 hrs
-take crushed or whole w/ full glass of water
-can give / food or milk to decrease GI upset
-signs of chronic poisoning: rapid, weak pulse, dyspnea, cold, clammy extremities
-signs of chronic overdose; bleeding, bruising, malaise, fever, sore throat
OTC; preg B
-s
Aspirin
Analgesics- nonopioid
s.e: nausea, vomiting, rash
N.C: mild to moderate pain or fever, transiet ischemic attacks, prophylaxis of MI, ischemic, stroke, angina
- PO; onset 15-30 min, pk 1-2 hrs,
- long-term use: liver damage, dark urine, clay-colored stools
-arthritis, give 30 min b4 exercise, may take 2 wks b4 full effect is felt
-discard tabs if vinergar-like smell
-do not give to children under 18-Reyes syndrome
OTC: preg C
Celecoxib (Celebrex)
analgesics-nonopioid
s.e: Fatique, anxiety, depression, nervousness, NV, anorexia, dry mouth, constipation
N.C:
mgmt of acute, chronic arthritis pain and primary dysmenorrhea pain relieve w/in 60 min
-onset 24-48 hrs, duration 12-24 hrs
-can take w/out meals
-do not take if allergic to sulfonamides, aspirin or NSAIDs
-Rx: preg C for 1st & 2nd trimester
Preg D for 3rd trimester
Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil)
analgesic-nonopioid
s.e.: headache, Nausea, anorexia, GI bleeding, blood dyscrasias
N.C: tmt of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, primary dysmenorrhea, gout, dental pain, musculoskeletal disorders, fever
-onset, 1/2 hrs, pk 1-2 hrs
-contact clinician if ringing or roaring in ears, =toxicity
-if changes in urinary pattern, increase wgt, edema, increased, pain in joints, fever, bl in urine=may indicate kidney damage
-use sunscreen for photosensitivity
-avoid use w/ ASA. NSAIDs, and alcohol,
OTC; rx; preg B
Naproxen (naproxyn, Anaprox, Anaprox Ds, EC-Naproxyn, Aleve (OTC))
analgesic- nonopioid
s.e.: GI bleeding
blood dyscrasias
N.C: mgmt of mild to moderate pain, tmt of rheumatoid, juvenile and gouty arthritis, osteoaarthritis, primary dysmenorrhea
-pts w/asthma, ASA hypersensitivity or nasal polyps have increased risk of hypersensitivity
-contact clinician if blurred vision, ringing or roaring in ears, =toxicity
if have black stools, flulike symptoms, if changes in urinary pattern, increase wgt, edema, increased, pain in joints, fever, bl in urine=may indicate kidney damage
-avoid use w/ ASA, steroids and alchohol
Otc; rX: PREG B
Heparin
anticoagulant
s.e.: hemorrhage
tissue irritation/pain w/injection
anemia
thrombocytopenia
fever
N.C.: maintain patency of IV-(heparin flush in low doses)
-therapeutic PPT @1.5-2.5 X the control w/out signs of hemorrhage
-IV: pk 5 min, dur. 2-6 hrs
-injec.=deep SQ; never IM-onset 2-6- min, dur. 8-12 hrs
-antidote: protamine sulfate w/in 30 min
-hemorrhage: bleeding gums, nose, unusual, black tarry stools, hematuria, fall in hemacrit or bl. pressure, guaiac-positive stools
-avoid ASA & NSAIDs (watch for addition in OTC)
-wear med. info tag
RX- preg C
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Anticoagulant
s.e.: hemorrhage
Diarrhea, Rash, Fever
N.C.: mgmt of pulmonary emboli, deep-vein thrombosis, MI, atrial dysrhythmias, postcardiac valve replacement
-therapeutic PT@1.5-2.5 X control, INR @ 2.0=3.0
-onset: 12-24 hrs, pk 1-1/2 to 3 days, dur: 3-5 days
-antidote: vit. K, whole bl, plasma
-avoid foods high in Vit K, green leafy vegs.
-do not interchange brands, potencies may not be equivalent
-avoid ASA & NSAIDS + OTC meds that contain them
-wear med.tag
Rx. preg X
(question-can you use different brand if run out of brand ordered? NO)
Gabapentin (Neurontin)
Anticonvulsant
s.e: CNS symptoms Rhinitis, Constipat,ion
N.C.: for seizures & postherpetic neuralgia
-do not take w/in 2 hrs of antacid
-avoid abrupt w/drawal after long-term use, wk-long w/drawal
-give w/out regard to meals, can open caps. & put in juice or applesauce
-do not crush or chew caps
-caution w/hazardous activities
-wear med. tag
Rx: preg C
Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
Anticonvulsant
s.e.: CNS symptoms, NV, anorexia, abd. pain, dysmenorrhea
N.C.: for mgmt of seizures
in peds, stop at 1st sign of rash, inform M.D.
-take divided doses w/meals or pc to decrease adverse eff.
=use caution w/activitie
=physical dependence, withdrawal problems
- wear med tags
Rx preg C
Phenobarbital (Luminal)
Anticonvulsant
s.e: CNS effects, depressive effects on body systems, rash, initially constricts pupils, Respiratory depression
-mgmt of epilepsy, febrile seizures in child.,sedation, insomnia
-IV: slow rate-crash cart availible
-IM: inject deep into large muscle, onset 10-30 min
-PO: onset 20-60 min pk 8-12 hrs, dur. 6-10 hrs
-caution w/activitie
-Nystagmus may indicate early toxicity
-Physical dependence, withdrawal problems
-give Vit D if long-term use
Rx: C-IV D=PO
Phenytoin (Dilantin)
Anticonvulsant
s.e.:CNS effects, nystagmus,hirsutism, GI upset, gingival, hypertrophy
N.C.:mgmt of seizures, migraines, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy
-PO: divided doses, with or pc meals
-pink/red/brown urine
-IV admin may lead to cardiac arrest-crash cart needed-never mix in IV w/other drugs or dextrose
-avoid abrupt withdrawal
-do not use w/antacids or antidiarrheals w/in 2 hrs of med
-caution w/activities
-folic acid supps. for long-term use
-wear med. tag
Preg C
Topiramate (Topamax)
Anticonvulsant
s.e.: CNS symptoms, wgt loss, photosensitivity
N.C.: mgmt of seizure
-give w/out regard to meals, can put in juice or applesauce
-physical dependence/withdrawal problems
-use caution w/activities
-increase fluid intake-kidney stones
-if eye problems-stop drug
-photosensitivity
-wear med tag
preg C
Carbamazepinek (Tegretol, Tegretol XR)
Anticonvulsant
s.e.: CNS symptoms, Myelosuppression, photosensitivy
N.C.: mgmt of seizures, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy
=avoid driving for 3 days
=monitor, bl. levels,CBC -eye exams
=take w/food, milk,
-brown/pink/red urine
=discontinue gradually
-avoid use w/alchohol, other CNS depressants
-preg C
Valproate (Depacon)
Anticonvulsant
CNS symptoms, mental status, behavioral changes, NVCD,heartburn, prolonged bleeding time
N.C.:mgnt of seizures
-withdrawal problems
-monitor bl. levels, platelets, bleeding time, liver function tests
-onset 2-4 days, pk bl level at end of infusion, dur: 6-24 hrs
-preg D
Valproic Acid (Depakene, Myproic acid)
Anticonvulsant
CNS symptoms, mental status, behavioral changes, NVCD,heartburn, prolonged bleeding time
N.C.:mgnt of seizures
-take w/meals or pc
-swallow whole,no crushing
-withdrawal problems
-monitor bl. levels, platelets, bleeding time, liver function tests
-onset 2-4 days, pk level of syrup 15-120 min, caps-1-4 hrs,, dur: 6-24 hrs
-wear med tag
-preg D
Divalproex Sodium (Depakote, Depokote ER)
Anticonvulsant
CNS symptoms, mental status, behavioral changes, NVCD,heartburn, prolonged bleeding time
N.C.:mgnt of seizures, manic episodes assoc.w/bipolar, migraine prophylaxis
-withdrawal problems
-monitor bl. levels, platelets, bleeding time, liver function tests
-take w/meals or pc
-swallow tabs whole no crushing
-delayed release:pk bl level 3-5 hrs, dur. 12-24 hrs
-extended release; onset 2-4 days, pk bl level 7-14 hrs, dur: 24 hrs
-wear med. tag
-preg D
Aminoglycosides:
Amikacin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin (Amikin, Garamycin, Tobrax)
Anti-infective
s.e.:do not use during preg. may cause bilateral congenital deafness,
Ototoxicity cranial nerve VIII
Nephrotoxicity
Allegric reactions: fever, diff. breathing, rash
N.C.: trtmt of severs systemic inf. of CNS, resp.,GI, urinary tract, Bone, skin, soft tissures, acute PID
-IV over 1/2 -1 hr: IM deep,slow, never SQ
-monitor bl.levels
-ch peak-2 hrs after admin
-ck trough-at time of dose/prior to med
-monitor for superinfection(diarrhea, URI, coated tongue)
-immediately report hearing or balance problems
-encourage fluids 8-10 glasses daily
preg C
Antifungals: Amphotericin B (Fungizone)
Anti-infective
s.e.: bl, kidney, heart,liver abnormalities
GI upset, Hypokalemia-induced muscle pain, CNS disturbances, inefficient hearing, skin irritation and thrombosis if IV infiltrates
N.C.: trmt of histoplasmosis, skin infections, septicemia, meningitis in HIV pts
-monitor vital signs, report fever or change in function, especially NS
-check for hypokalemia
-meticulous care and observation of injection site
-benefits balanced agst serious
preg B
Antifungals: Fluconazole (Diflucan)
s.e.: Nausea, Diarrhea, Headache, Abd. pain, taste distortion
N.C.: trmt of vaginal, esophageal, or systemic candidiasis
-prothrombin time is increased after warfarin usage
-take missed dose asap, but do not double dose
-reduces metabolism of tolbutamide, glyburide, and glipizide, so bl. glucose levels shoud be monitored in diabetics
-preg C
Anti-malarials: Hydrozychloroquine (Plaquenil)
s.e.: eye disturbances, NV, Anorexia
N.C.: mgmt of malaria, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis
-peak 1-2 hrs
-take at same time ea day to maintain bl levels
-for malaria, prophylaxis should be started 2 wks b4 exposure and for 4-6 wks after leaving exposure area
preg C
Anti-malarials:
Quinine Sulfate
Anti-infective
s.e.: eye disturbances, NV, Anorexia
N.C.: mgmt of malaria,nocturnal leg cramps
-peak 1-3 hrs
-take same time ea day to maintain bl. levels
-avoid OTC cold meds, tonic water
-preg X
Anti-protozoals: Metronidazole (Flagyl, Flagyl ER)
anti-infective
CNS symptoms, abd cramps, metallic taste,
N.C.: trtmt of wide variety of inf.including trichomoniasis and giardiasis
=IV:immediate onset, PO-pk 1-2 hrs
=dark-reddish brown urine
=avoid hazardous activities
=trtmt in both partners for trichomoniasis
=do not drink alcohol in any form, during and 48 hrs after use, disulfiram-like reaction can occur
preg B
Anti-tuberculars: Isoniazid (INH)
anti-infective
s.e.: peripheral neuropathy, liver damage
N.C.: prevention and trtmt of TB
=PO/Im:onset rapid, pk 1-2 hrs, dur: up to 24 hrs
=contact MD if signs of hepatitis:yellow eyes or skin, NV, anorexia, dark urine, unusual tiredness, or weakness
-contact MD if signs of peripheral neuropathy: numbness, tingling or weakness
preg C
Anti-virals: Acyclovir (Zovirax)
anti-infective
s.e.: headache, bl. dyscrasias
N.C: trmt of herpes, varicella
=IV: onset & peak immediate
=PO: absorbed minimally, onset unknown, pk 1-1/2 hrs
=do not break, crush or chew
=PO: take w/out regard to meals w/full glass water
=if does missed take asap, up to 1 hr b4 next does
=contact MD if sore throat, fever and fatique, could be signs of superinfection
preg B
Anti-viral: Oseltamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu)
anti-infective
s.e.: NV
N.C:-used as prophylaxis in adults for influenza, including Avian Bird Flu
-treats uncomplicated acute flu symptoms in pts that are symptomatic for 2 days or less
-should not be used as substitute for flu vaccine
-may be taken w/out regard for meals
preg C
Anti-virals: Valacyclovir HCI
(Valtrex)
anti-infective
NV, abd. cramps, headache
N.C: trtmt genital herpes
=treats Herpes Zoster(shingles)
=treats Herpes labialis (cold sores)
=pts shoudl drink plenty of fluids during trtmt
=avoid sexual ontact when lesions are visible
=use with caution in preg & nursing mothers
preg B
Anti-Viral: Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir
anti-infective
s.e.: fever, headache, malaise, NVD, Dizziness, insomnia, dyspepsia, anorexia, rash
N.C: mgmt of HIV inf. & prevention of HIV following needlestick
-GI upset and insomnia resolve after 3-4 wks
-PO: pk 1/2-1 1/2 hrs
preg C
Cephalosporins, 1st generation :
Cefadroxil (Duricef)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of upper and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, otitis media, tonsillitis & UTIs
=peak 1- 1 1/2 hrs, dur: 12-24 hrs
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B
Cephalosporins, 1st gen:
Cephalexin (Keflex, Keflet)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of upper and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, otitis media,
=IM:peak 1 hrs, dur: 6-12 hrs;
IV: pk 5 min, dur 4-6 hrs
preg B
Cephalosporins, 1st gen.
Cephapirin (Cefadyl)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of lower respiratory tract,skin infections, endocarditis, bacterial peritonitis
=peak 30 min, dur: 4-6 hrs; up to 12 w/decreased urinary ouput
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B
Cephalosporins, 1st gen:
Cephradine (Velosef)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of serious respiratory tract, and skin infections, otitis media,& UTIs
=peak 1- 2 hrs, dur: usually 6 but up to 12 hrs w/decreased renal function
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B
Cephalosporins 2nd gen:
Cefaclor (Ceclor, Ceclor CD)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of respiratory tract, urinary tract,bone, joint and skin infections, otitis media,
=peak 1/2- hrs,extended release pk 1 1/2-2 1/2 hrs
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B
Cephalosporins 2nd. gen:
Cefamandole (Mandol)
anti-infectives.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, peritonitis, septicemia, surgical prophylaxis
=peak 1/2-1 hrs
IV or IM
-avoid alcohol
preg B
Cephalosporins, 2nd gen:
Cefonicid (monocid)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, otitis media, peritonitis, septicemia
=IM:peak 1 hr.
=IV: onset 5 min
preg B
Cephalosporins, 2nd gen:
Cefotetan (Cefotan)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt ofrespiratory tract, urinary tract, and bone, joint & skin infections, GYN & gonococcal inf, intrabdominal inf.
=IM/IV:peak 1 1/2-3 hrs.or at end of infusion
=avoid alcohol
preg B
Methadone
Opioid Analgesic
s.e.:Drowsiness, sedation
nausea, vomiting, anorexia
Respiratory depression
constipation, cramps
orthostatic hypotension
confusion, headache
rash
N.C.: pain relief, detoxification/maintenance of narcotic addiction
PO- IM, IV
do not give if resp are less than 12 per min
withdrawal symptoms
RX C=11, Preg: C
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
Opioid Analgesic
s.e.:Drowsiness, sedation
nausea, vomiting, anorexia
Respiratory depression
constipation, cramps
orthostatic hypotension
confusion, headache
rash
trmt of moderate to severe pain, nonproductive cough
PO,IM,IV, SubQ, Rectal
do not give if resp less than 12 per min
Withdrawal symptoms
Rx=C=11 Preg C
Propoxyphene
(Darvon, Darvocet-N (propoxyphene with acetominophen)
Opioid Analgesic
s.e.:Drowsiness, sedation
nausea, vomiting, anorexia
Respiratory depression
constipation, cramps
orthostatic hypotension
confusion, headache
rash
mgmt of mile to moderate pain
PO
low sch rating for misuse potential, addiction liability
-do not use in pts w/suicidal tendencies
withdrawal symptoms may occur
Rx: C=IV preg: C
Oxycodone
(Oxy Contin; with aspirin Percodan, with acetaminophen Percoset)
Opioid Analgesic
s.e.:Drowsiness, sedation
nausea, vomiting, anorexia
Respiratory depression
constipation, cramps
orthostatic hypotension
confusion, headache
rash, Euphoria
mgmt of moderate to severe pain
PO
Controlled release
do not give if resp less than 12 per min
withdrawal symptoms
Rx: C=11 preg B
Codeine
Opioid Analgesic
s.e.:Drowsiness, sedation
nausea, vomiting, anorexia
Respiratory depression
constipation,
orthostatic hypotension
mgmt of moderate to severe pain, nonproductive cough
PO, IM/SQ
do not give if resp less than 12 per min
withdrawal symptoms
Rx: C=11, III, IV, V (depends on route
preg C
Hydrocodone Bitartrate & Acetaminophen
(Lortabs)
Opioid Analgesic
s.e.:Drowsiness, dizziness
nausea, vomiting, constipation
mgmt of moderate to severe pain
habit forming
use cautiously w/pts w/pulmonary considerations
Rx: C=11I preg C
Meperidine
(Demerol)
Opioid Analgesic
s.e.:Drowsiness, sedation
Respiratory depression
orthostatic hypotension
confusion, headache
Euphoria
mgmt of moderate to severe pain. pre-op sedation, post-op & OB analgesia
PO, IM, IV, SQ
do not give if resp less than 12 per min
withdrawal symptoms
Rx: C=11 preg C
Morphine
(MS Contin)
Opioid Analgesic
s.e.:sedation
constipation
Respiratory depression
orthostatic hypotension
Euphoria
mgmt of severe pain
continous dosing is more effective than prn, may be given by pt controlled analgesia
PO,IM,IV, SQ
withdrawal symptoms
Rx: C=11 preg C