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29 Cards in this Set

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Albumin

normal levels
3.5 - 5.0 mg/dl
Albumin

Increased serum values?
Decreased: cystic fibrosis, chronic glomerulonephritis, alcoholic cirrhosis, Hodkin's disease, malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, multiple myeloma, inflammatory bowel disease, leukemia, collagen-vascular diseases
Aldosterone

Increased in which pathologies
Increased: hyperaldosterism (primary or secondary).
Aldosterone

Decreased in which pathologies
Decreased: adrenal insufficiency, panhypopituitarism.
Amylase

Increased in which pathologies
Increased: acute pancreatitis, pancreatic duct obstruction, alcohol ingestion, mumps, parotitidis, renal disease, cholecystitis, peptic ulcers, intestinal obstruction, mesenteric thrombosis, postop abdominal surgery
Amylase

Decreased in which pathologies
Decreased: Liver damage, pancreatic destruction (pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis)
Bilirubin

Normal Serum values
Total: 0.2 - 1.2 mg/dl
Bilirubin

Increased in which pathologies
Increased total: hepatic damage (hepatitis, toxins, cirrhosis), biliary obstruction, hemolysis, fasting.

Increased direct (conjugated): biliary obstruction / cholestasis, drug induced cholestasis.
BUN

Normal Serum values
7-20 mg/dl
BUN

Increased in which pathologies
Increased: renal failure, pre-renal azotemia, shock, volume depletion, postrenal (obstruction), GI bleeding, stress, drugs (aminoglycosides, vanco etc).
BUN

decreased serum values
Decreased: starvation, liver failure, pregnancy, infancy, nephrotic syndrome, overhydration.
Calcium serum values
8.8 - 10.3 mg/dl
Calcium

Increased serum values
Increased: primary hyperthyroidism, parathyroid hormone secreting tumors, vitamin D excess, metastatic bone tumors, chronic renal failure, milk-alkali syndrome, osteoporosis, thiazide drugs, pagets disease, multiple myeloma, sarcoidosis.
Calcium

Decreased serum values
Decreased: hypoparathyroidism, insufficient vitamin D, hypomagnesemia, renal tubular acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, chronic renal failure (phosphate retention), acute pancreatitis
CO2 ABG value
35-45 mm HG
CO2

Increased ABG value
Increased: respiratory acidosis, compensation for metabolic acidosis, severe vomiting, primary aldosteronism, volume contraction, emphysema
CO2

Decreased ABG value
Decreased: Respiratory alkalosis, starvation, DKA, lactic acidosis, alcoholic ketoacidosis, severe diarrhea, renal failure, drugs (salicylates etc), dehydration.
Chloride Normal Serum values
95-107 meq/l
Chloride

Increased serum values
Increased: diarrhea, renal tubular acidosis, mineralocorticoid deficiency, hyperalimentation, medications (acetazolamide, ammonium chloride).
Chloride

Decreased serum values
Decreased: mineralocorticoid excess, vomiting, diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis
Creatinine Normal Serum values
0.5 - 1.4 mg/dl
Creatinine

Increased serum values
Increased: renal failure including prerenal, drug-induced (aminoglycosides, vancomycin, others), acromegaly.
Creatinine

Decreased serum values
Decreased: loss of muscle mass, pregnancy.
Magnesium Normal Serum values
1.6 - 2.6 mg/dl
Magnesium

Increased serum values
Increased: renal failure, hypothyroidism, severe dehydration, lithium intoxication, antacids, Addison's disease.
Magnesium

Decreased Serum values
Decreased: hyperthyroidism, aldosteronism, diuretics, malabsorption, hyperalimentation, nasogastric suctioning, chronic dialysis, renal tubular acidosis, drugs (aminoglycosides, cisplatin, ampho B)
Phosphorus Normal Serum values
2.5 - 4.5 mg/dl
Phosphorus

Increased serum values
Increased: hypoparathyroidism, excess vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, renal failure, bone disease, addisons disease.
Phosphorus

Decreased Serum values
Decreased: hyperparathyroidism, alcoholism, diabetes, hyperalimentation, acidosis, hypomagnesemia, diuretics, vitamin D deficiency, phosphate-binding antacids.