Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Effects of hyponatremia on respiratory system:
shallow, ineffective respiratory movements as a late manifestation r/t skeletal muscle weakness
Effects of hyponatremia on neuromusclar system:
generalized skeletal muscle weakness that is worse in the extremities
Effects of hyponatremia on cerebral function:
headache, personality changes
Effects of hyponatremia on GI system:
a. Increased motility and hyperactive bowel sounds
b. Nausea
c. Abdominal cramping and diarrhea
If the client is taking lithium for hyponatremia, why should you monitor lithium levels?
Hyponatremia can cause diminished lithium excretion, resulting in toxicity.
What are four conditions that cause decreased sodium excretion can result in hypernatremia?
a. Corticosteroids
b. Cushing's syndrome
c. Renal failure
d. Hyperaldosteronism
Effects of hypernatremia on neuromuscular system:
a. Early: spontaneous muscle twitches; irregular muscle contractions
b. Late: skeletal muscle weakness; deep tendon reflexes diminshed or absent
Effects of hypernatremia on central nervous system:
a. altered cerebral function is the most common manifestation of hypernatremia
Effects of hypokalemia on cardiovascular system:
a. Thready, weak, irregular pulse
b. Peripheral pulses weak
c. Orthostatic hypotension
d. EKG changes: ST depression; shallow, flat or inverted T wave; and prominent U wave
Effects of hypokalemia on respiratory system:
a. Shallow, ineffective respirations that result from profound muscle weakness of the skeletal muscles of respiration
b. Diminished breath sounds
Effects of hypokalemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Anxiety, lethary, confusion, coma
b. Skeletal muscle weakness; eventual flaccid paralysis
c. Loss of tactile discrimination
d. Deep tendon hyporeflexia
Effects of hypokalemia on GI system:
a. Decreased motility, hypoactive to absent bowel sounds
b. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal distention
c. Paralytic ileus
The maximun recommended infusion rate is ___ mEq/hr, never to exceed ___ mEq/hr under any circumstances.
5-10; 20
Effects of hyperkalemia on cardiovascular system:
a. Slow, weak, irregular HR
b. Decreased BP
c. EKG changes: tall peaked T waves; widened QRS complexes; prolonged PR intervals; and flat P waves
Effects of hyperkalemia on respiratory system:
profound weakness of the skeletal muscles causes respiratory failure
Effects of hyperkalemia on system:
a. Early: muscle twitches, cramps, paresthesias
b. Late: profound weakness, ascending flaccid paralysis in the arms and legs
Effects of hyperkalemia on GI system:
a. Increased motility, hyperactive bowel sounds
b. Diarrhea
If renal function is impaired, prepare to administer ___, cation exchange resin that promotes GI sodium absorption and potassium excretion.
Kayexalate
Effect of hypocalcemia on cardiovascular system:
a. Decreased HR
b. Hypotension
c. Diminished peripheral pulses
d. EKG changes: prolonged ST interval; prolonged QT intervals
Effect of hypocalcemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Irritable skeletal muscles: twitches, cramps, tetany, seizures
b. Parasthesias followed by numbness that may affect the lips, nose, and ears in addition to the limbs
c. Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes
Effect of hypocalcemia on GI system:
a. Increased gastric motility; hyperactive bowel sounds
Effect of hypercalcemia on cardiovascular system:
a. Increased HR in early phase; bradycardia that can lead to cardiac arrest in late phases
b. Increased BP
c. Bounding, full peripheral pulses
d. EKG changes: shortened ST segment; widened T wave
Effect of hypercalcemia on respiratory system:
Ineffective respiratory movement as a result of profound skeletal muscle weakness
Effect of hypercalcemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Profound muscle weakness
b. Diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes
c. Disorientation, lethary, coma
Effect of hypercalcemia on renal system:
a. Increased urinary output leading to dehydration
b. Anorexia, nausea, abdominal distention, constipation
Effect of hypomagnesemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Twitches; paresthesias
b. Positive Trousseau's and Chvostek's signs
hypo-___ frequently accompanies hypomagnesemia.
calcemia
Effects of hypermagnesemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Diminished deep tendon reflexes
b. Skeletal muscle weakness
Effects of hypermagnesemia on central nervous system:
drowsiness and lethargy that progresses to coma
A decrease in the serum phosphorus level is accompanied by an increase in the serum ___ level.
calcium
Effects of hypophospatemia on neuromuscular system:
a. Weakness
b. Decreased deep tendon reflexes
c. Decreased bone density that can cause fractures and alterations in bone shape
An increase in the serum phosphorus level is accompanied by a decrease in the serum ___ level.
calcium
The problems that occur in hyperphosphatemia center on the hypo-___ that results when serum phosphorus levels increase.
calcemia