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17 Cards in this Set

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Normal Calcium Level
8.6 to 10.0 mg/dL
Role of calcium in the body?
+need for the process of bone formation
+coagulation of blood
+excitation of cardiac and skeletal muscle
+maintenance of muscle tone, +conduction of neuromuscular impulses,
+the synthesis and regulation of the endocrine and exocrine glands.
Normal magnesium level
1.6 to 2.6 mg/dL
Role of magnesium in the body?
+Concentrated in the bone, cartilage, and within the cell itself:
-Required for the use of ATP as a source of energy
-Necessary for the action of numerous enzyme systems (carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, contraction of muscular tissue)
-Regulates neuromuscular activity and clotting mechanism.
Normal Potassium Level
3.5 to 5.1 mEq/L
Role of potassium in the body?
+Principle electrolyte of intracellular fluid and primary buffer w/in the cell.
+Needed for nerve conduction
+Muscle function
+Acid-base balance
+Osmotic pressure
+Along with Ca2+ and Mg, it controls the rate and force of contraction of the heart and thus cardiac output.
Normal phosphorus level
2.7 to 4.5 mg/dL
Role of phosphorus in the body?
+Needed for generation of body tissue
+Functions in the metabolism of glucose and lipids
+Maintenance of acid-base balance
+Storage and transfer of energy from one site in the body to another.
What electrolyte is present in the body at inverse levels of phosphorus?
Calcium. When calcium levels are decreased, phosphorus levels are increased and vice versa.
Normal sodium level
135-145 mEq/L
Role of sodium in the body.
Maintains osmotic pressure and acid-base balance and transmits nerve impulses.
What is the total daily body fluid excretion and through what systems does this occur.
Total: 2500 mL
Skin by diffusion: 400 mL
SKin by perspiration: 100 mL
Lungs: 350 mL
Feces: 150 mL
Kidneys: 1500 mL
What is Isotonic dehydration?
-Water and dissolved electrolytes are lost in equal proportions. (Hypovolemia)
-Results in decreased circulating blood volume and inadequate tissue perfusion.
Define Hypertonic dehydation.
-Water loss exceeds electrolyte loss.
-Fluid moves from the intracellular compartment into the plasma and intersititial fluid spaces, causing cellular dehydration and shrinkage.
Define hypotonic dehydration.
-Electrolyte loss exceeds water loss
-Clinical problems result due to fluid shifting between compartments, causing a decrease in plasma volume.
-Fluid moves from teh plasma and interstitial fluid spaces into the cells, causing a plasma volume deficit and causing the cells to swell.
What is Chvostek's sign?
A test for hypocalcemia. It is the contraction of facial muscles in response to a light tap over the facial nerve in front of the ear.
What is Trousseau's sign?
A test for hypocalcemia. It is a carpal spasm induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff above systolic pressure for a few minutes.