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42 Cards in this Set

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Flexibility
The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of a joint
Extensibility
Capability to be elongated or stretched
Dynamic range of motion
The combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently
Neuromuscular efficiency
The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce (concentrically), reduce (eccentrically), and dynamically stabilize (isometrically) the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion
Dynamic functional flexibility
Multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimal neuromuscular efficiency through the full range of motion
Postural distortion patterns (movement compensations)
Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances due to misalignment or malfunction of a link in the kinetic chain leading to decreased neuromuscular efficiency and tissue overload
Relative flexibility
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns often due to poor flexibility
Muscle imbalance
Alteration of muscle length surrounding a joint caused by abnormal kinetic chain efficiency (altered length-tension, force-couple, arthrokinematics) in which some are overactive (forcing compensation) and others are underactive (allowing compensation)
Muscle imbalance causes
Altered reciprocal inhibition, synergistic dominance, arthrokinetic dysfunction, and overall decreased neuromuscular control
Altered reciprocal inhibition
Muscle problem caused by a tight agonist, which affects its functional antagonist resulting in muscle imbalances altering length-tension & force-couple relationships and producing synergistic dominance
Synergistic dominance
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when synergists take over the function of (compensate for) a weak or inhibited prime mover leading to joint dysfunction, altered force-couple relationships and decreasing neuromuscular efficiency
Arthrokinetic dysfunction
Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint
Arthrokinematics
The motions of joints in the body
Tight muscle results in:
Overactive muscle on one side of a joint causes stretching of muscle spindles on other side causing those muscle's fibers to contract resulting in spasms or tightness; stretch the overactive muscle
Autogenic inhibition
The process when neural impulses that sense tension (GTO) is greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles; contracting muscle is inhibited by its own receptors causing it to relax and allowing stretching; primary principle in static stretching
Muscle spindles
Major sensory organ in the muscle; microscopic fibers parallel to muscle fibers; sensitive to change of and rate of change of muscle length; excitation causes muscle to contract
Golgi tendon organ (GTO)
Located in musculotendinous junction; sensitive to muscle tension and rate of tension change; excitation causes muscle to relax, preventing excessive stress
Benefits of flexibility training
Corrects muscle imbalance; increases joint ROM; decreases excess muscle tension; relieves joint stress; improves extensibility of musculotendinous junction; maintains normal functional length of all muscles
Pattern overload
Consistently repeating the same type of motion, which may place abnormal stresses on the body; from exercise or normal daily functions
Cumulative injury cycle
Poor posture or repetitive movements (pattern overload) create tissue trauma creating inflammation resulting in muscle spasm causing adhesions which alter neuromuscular control causing muscle imbalance causing more trauma
Adhesions
Knots in muscle soft tissue caused by microspasms due to inflammation from repetitive use or trauma; inelastic matrix reduces stretching ability of muscle; like scar tissue except crosses from one tissue to another
Davis' law
Soft tissue remodels (rebuilds) itself with an inelastic collagen matrix (adhesion) in a random fashion not in the line of the muscle fibers causing relative inflexibility; chronically shortened muscles or lengthened muscles become more so due to these adhesions
Flexibility continuum
Progressive nature of flexibility training- corrective static stretching- active isolated stretching- functional dynamic stretching
Corrective flexibility
Type of flexibility that improves muscle imbalances and altered joint motion using principles of autogenic inhibition; uses SMR & static stretching during stabilization phase of OPT
Active flexibility
This type of flexibility Improves extensibility of soft tissue and increases neuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition; uses SMR & an isolated stretching technique; agonists & synergists move limb through full ROM while functional antagonists are stretched; used in strength levels of OPT
Functional flexibility
Integrated multiplanar soft tissue extensibility with optimum neuromuscular control through full ROM; movement without compensations; if compensating, need to regress; uses SMR & dynamic flexibility; power level of OPT
Self-Myofacial Release (SMR)
Stretching technique that focuses on neural and fascial systems; applying gentle force to adhesions alters muscle fibers from bundled to straighter alignment with direction of muscle; stimulates GTO creating autogenic inhibition decreasing muscle spindle excitation releasing hypertonicity of muscle
Static stretching
Passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 20 seconds & 1-3 sets; uses autogenic inhibition allowing muscle to relax and stretch; contracting antagonist while stretching may reciprocally inhibit the muscle stretched allowing greater lengthening
Active-isolated stretching
Using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion; increases motor-neuron excitability creating reciprocal inhibition of the muscle being stretched; pre-activity warmup; hold 1-2 sec for 5-10 reps & 1-2 sets
Dynamic stretching
Active extension of a muscle using force production and momentum to move the joint through the full available ROM; pre-activity warmup of 1 set of 10 reps using 3-10 stretches
Stretch/roll overactive for squat feet turn out
Stretch/roll gastrocnemius/soleus, biceps femoris short head
Stretch/roll overactive for squat knees moving inward
Stretch/roll adductors, TFL/IT band, biceps femoris short head
Stretch/roll overactive for squat LPC excessive forward lean
Stretch/roll gastrocnemius/soleus, hip flexors, piriformis
Stretch/roll overactive for squat LPC low back arch
Stretch/roll hip flexors, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae
Stretch/roll overactive for squat upper body arms fall forward
Stretch/roll latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major/minor
Stretch/roll overactive for push/pull shoulders elevating and forward head
Stretch/roll upper trapezius/scalenes, levator scapulae
Strengthen underactive for squat feet turn out
Strengthen underactive medial gastroc & hamstring, single leg balance reach
Strengthen underactive for squat knees move inward
Strengthen underactive gluteus medius/maximus, vastus medialis oblique (VMO), tube walking
Strengthen underactive for squat LPHC excessive forward lean
Strengthen underactive anterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, erector spinae with ball squats
Strengthen underactive for squat LPHC low back arching
Strengthen underactive gluteus maximus, hamstrings, intrinsic core stabilizers with ball squats
Strengthen underactive for squat upper body arms falling forward or for push/pull shoulders elevate
Strengthen underactive mid/low trapezius, rhomboids, rotators cuff with squat to row or ball cobra
Strengthen underactive for push/pull forward head
Strengthen underactive deep cervical flexors by keeping head in neutral position during all exercises