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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Kinetic chain
The equation for movement; the combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems which is responsible for movement
Nervous system
The communication network within the body that allows us to gather information about our internal and external environments, process and interpret the information, and then respond to it
Sensory function
The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment
Integrative function
The function of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making which produces the appropriate response
Motor function
The neuro-muscular response to the sensory information
Functions of the nervous system
Sensory, integrative, motor
Neuron
The functional unit of the nervous system
Main parts of a neuron
Cell body, axon, dendrites
Neuronal cell body (soma)
Contains nucleus and other organelles such as lysosomes, mitochondria, and a Golgi complex
Axon
A cylindrical projection from the cell body that transmits nervous impulses from the brain and spinal cord to other neurons or effector sites (muscles, organs)
Dendrites
The branched projections of a neuronal cell body that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron
Functional classifications of neurons
Sensory (afferent), interneuronal, motor (efferent)
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Neurons which transmit nerve impulses from effector sites such as muscles and organs via receptors to the (CNS) brain and spinal cord
Interneurons
Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another
Motor (efferent) neurons
Type of neurons which transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord (CNS) to the effector sites such as muscles or glands
Divisions of nervous system
Central nervous system CNS and peripheral nervous system PNS
Central nervous system- CNS
The brain and spinal cord, interprets information
Cervical nerves, C1-8
8 pairs of CNS nerves which emerge above the top vertebra except 8 which is below
Thoracic nerves, T1-12
12 pairs of CNS nerves which emerge below the midsection vertebra
Lumbar nerves, L1-5
5 pairs of CNS nerves which emerge below lower vertebra
Sacral nerves, S1-5
5 pairs of CNS nerves which emerge below lowest vertebra
Coccygeal nerves
1 pair of CNS nerves which emerges at the bottom of the spinal column
Peripheral nervous system- PNS
Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, & sensory receptors which carry impulses from the brain and spinal column to effector sites such as muscles (motor function) and from effector sites back to the brain via sensory receptors (sensory function)
Sensory receptors- function
Special structures located throughout the body that transform environmental stimuli into sensory information that the brain and spinal cord can then interpret to produce a response
Types of sensory receptors
Mechanoreceptors, nociceptors, chemoreceptors, photoreceptors, proprioceptors, & others
Mechanoreceptors
Sensory receptors that respond to mechanical forces sensing tissue distortion through stretch, compression, traction, or tension
Mechanoreceptors- types & location
Muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs (GTO) and joint receptors located in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules
Muscle spindles
The major PNS sensory organs of the muscle which sit parallel to the muscle fibers and sense changes in length and rate of change; when excited, prevents muscle injury due to stretching too far or too fast by contracting the muscle
Golgi tendon organs (GTO)
Mechanoreceptors located where muscle and tendon meet (musculotendinous junction) and sense muscular tension and rate of tension change; when excited, prevents muscle injury due to excessive stress by relaxing the muscle
Joint receptors
PNS sensory organs located in and around the joint capsule which respond to pressure and acceleration/deceleration of the joint to prevent injury by signaling extreme joint positions; can initiate reflexive inhibitory response in surrounding muscles if excess stress
Skeletal system
The body's framework for structure and movement composed of bones and joints
Bones- basic functions
Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection for vital organs
Bones- functions for movement
Provide leverage when acted upon by muscles and provide support (posture) necessary for the efficient distribution of forces acting on the body
Roughly 206, 177 of which are involved in voluntary movement
Number of bones
Joints
More than 300 junctions where two or more bones meet; movement occurs at some joints due to muscle contraction
Axial skeleton
Approximately 80 bones which include the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
Appendicular skeleton
Approximately 126 bones which include the upper and lower extremities and the pectoral and pelvic girdles
Divisions of the skeletal system
Axial and appendicular skeletons
Bone markings
Depressions and processes; structures for increasing joint stability and providing attachment sites for muscles
Depressions
Flattened or indented portions of the bone
Processes
Projections protruding from the bone to which muscles, tendons, and ligaments attach
Arthrokinematics
Joint motion
Major joint motions
Roll, slide, spin
Synovial joints
Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body, 80% of joints, loosely held
Synovial fluid
Resembles egg whites and lubricates joints
Types of synovial joints
Gliding, condyloid, hinge, saddle, pivot, ball & socket
Gliding joint
Simplest synovial joint, just moves back & forth, carpals of hand
Condyloid joint
Synovial joint with sagittal flexion/extension and minimal rotation & ad/abduction, wrist & knee
Hinge joint
Synovial joint that's uniaxial in sagittal plane, elbow, interphalageal, ankle
Saddle joint
Synovial joint that flex/extends sagitally, ab/adducts frontally, and has some rotation; only in thumb
Pivot joint
Synovial joint that rotates, supinates, pronates in transverse plane, base of skull & radioulnar
Ball-and-socket joint
Most mobile synovial joint, movement in 3 planes, shoulder & hip
Non-synovial joints
Joints with no joint cavity and little or no movement, skull
Ligaments
Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system (proprioception), guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement, made of collagen and elastin
Collagen
Primary protein fibers of ligaments, situated parallel to forces, provides tensile strength
Elastin
Secondary protein fibers of ligaments, provides flexibility, amounts in different ligaments varies making some ligaments more flexible than others
Ligament and tendon healing
Structures with poor vascularity (blood supply) so that they heal and adapt slowly
Main types of bones
Long, short, flat, irregular
Pectoral girdle
Complex of 5 joints that connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton on both sides and includes the clavicle and scapula
Clavicle
Collarbone, only horizontal long bone, connects scapula to sternum
Scapula
Flat triangular bone that connects the humerus to the clavicle
Humerus
Long bone of upper arm that connects the scapula with the elbow (radius & ulna)
Ulna
Larger and longer of 2 long bones of the forearm, primary bone of elbow, pinky side, corresponds to fibula of lower leg
Radius
Smaller and shorter of 2 long bones of the forearm, primary bone of the wrist, thumb side, corresponds to tibia of lower leg
Carpus, tarsus
The sole cluster of bones in the wrist/foot between the radius/ulna:tibia/fibula and the fingers/toes
Metacarpals/tarsals
Bones in the hand/foot connecting the carpus/tarsus to the phalanges
Phalanges
Bones of the fingers and toes
Pelvic girdle
The 2 hip bones which attach to the sacrum & coccyx, connects the spine with the femur via the hip joint
Sacrum
Large triangular bone at the base of the spine which connects to the hip bones and coccyx to form the pelvic girdle
Coccyx
Tailbone, final segment of the vertebral column, below the sacrum
Femur
Thigh bone, longest and largest bone of the body
Tibia
Shinbone, 2nd largest bone in body, strongest weight-bearing bone
Fibula
Calf bone, the thinnest long bone
Vertebral column
Vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
Thoracic (rib) cage
Sternum, 24 ribs, 24 costal cartilages, 12 thoracic vertebra
Upper limb
Humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
Lower limb
Femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Patella
The knee cap; a thick, circular-triangular bone which articulates with the femur and covers and protects the anterior articular surface of the knee joint
Skeletal muscle system
Series of muscles directed by the nervous system that move and stabilize the skeleton
Fascia
Layer of fibrous tissue composed of collagen that surrounds muscles, muscle groups, blood vessels, & nerves, binding them together; helps to form tendon and connects muscle to muscle
Epimysium
A layer of connective tissue, which ensheaths the entire muscle just inside the fascia; also helps to form tendon
Fascicle
A bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by connective tissue called the perimysium
Perimysium
Connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle
Endomysium
Connective tissue that surrounds an individual muscle fiber
Tendons
Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force; also have poor vascularity
Sarcomere
The functional unit of muscle (like neuron to nervous system) that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin ending at Z lines
Sarcolemma
Plasma membrane that encases a muscle fiber
Muscle fibers
Encased by sarcolemma; contain sarcoplasm (glycogen, fats, minerals), nuclei, mitochondria, & myofibrils
Myofibrils
Contain myofilaments, the contractile components of muscle tissue, which form a number of repeating segments (sarcomeres) within it
Myofilaments
The contractile components of muscle tissue, actin (thin) and myosin (thick)
Z lines
Dark colored lines/discs that delimit a sarcomere
Neural activation
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
Motor unit
The motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
Neurotransmitter
Chemical messengers that cross synapses to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
Neuromuscular junction
The point at which a motor neuron attaches to an individual muscle fiber
Synapse
A small gap between a nerve and a muscle fiber
Action potentials
Electrical impulses which are transported from the CNS down the axon of the neuron to the axon terminal where neurotransmitters are released initiating the contraction
ACh, Acetylcholine
The neurotransmitter used by the neuromuscular system which stimulates the muscle fibers to contract
Sliding filament theory
Proposed process of how the sarcomeres shorten due to actin and myosin filaments pulling together
Excitation-contraction coupling
The combination of neural activation and sliding filament to create muscle contraction
Type I fibers
Slow twitch muscle fibers containing myoglobin, a red pigment, so also called red fibers
Type I/ Slow twitch fibers function
Smaller diameter fibers, slower to produce maximal tension, more resistant to fatigue; important for muscles producing long-term contractions necessary for stabilization and postural control
Type II fibers
Fast twitch fibers, contain fewer capillaries, mitochondria, & myoglobin than slow twitch, divided into (red ) A (red) and (white) B & X types
Type II/Fast twitch fibers function
Muscle fibers which are larger in size, produce maximal tension, and fatigue more quickly; produce short-term contractions more important for movements requiring force and power
Agonist
Prime mover muscle
Synergists
Muscles which assist the prime mover muscle
Stabilizers
Muscles which aid the prime mover and synergist muscles
Antagonist
Muscle which opposes prime mover
Actin
Thin myofilament
Myosin
Thick myofilament