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96 Cards in this Set

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16
.
crust
the outer layer; it is made of rock
mantle
the layer of rock beneath Earth's crust
core
center layer of Earth
plates
rigid blocks of crust and upper mantle rock
magma
molten rock from Earth's mantle
volcano
mountain formed by lava and ash
earthquakes
shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy in Earth's crust
faults
places where pieces of the crust move
17
.
continental drift
the theory of how Earth's continents move over its surface
pangea
supercontinent containing all of Earth's land that existed 255 million years ago
fossils
remains or traces of past life found in some rocks
18
.
mineral
a natural, solid material with particles arranged in a repeating pattern
streak
the color of the powder left behind when you rub a mineral
luster
the way the surface of a mineral reflects light
hardness
a mineral's ability to resist being scratched
19
.
rock
material made of one are more minerals
igneous
rocks that form when melted rock hardens
sedimentary rock
a type of rock formed by layers of sediments that were squeezed and stuck together
metamorphic rock
rocks that can change the form of the minerals that make up the rock
rock cycle
the slow, never-ending process of rock changes
20
.
atmosphere
layer of air that surround Earth
air pressure
weight of air
humidity
a measure of the amount of water in the air
precipitation
any form of water that falls from clouds, such as rain or snow
evaporation
process of liquid water changing to water vapor
condensation
process by which a gas changes back into a liquid
21
.
local winds
the winds dependent upon local changes in temperature
prevailing winds
global winds that blow constantly from the same direction
air mass
a large body that has nearly the same temperature and humidity throughout
front
boundary between air mass
22
.
climate
the average of all weather conditions through all seasons over a period of time
microclimate
the climate of a very small area
El Nino
a short term climate change that occurs every two to ten years
green house effect
process by which the Earth's atmosphere absorbs heat
global warming
the hypothesized rise in Earth's average temperature from excess carbon dioxide
23
.
salinity
saltiness of the ocean
water pressure
the weight of water pressing on an object
wave
the up and down movement of water
current
a stream of water that flows like a river through the ocean
tide
repeated rise and fall in the level of the ocean
shore
the area where the ocean and land meet and interact
headland
a hard rocky point of land left when softer rock is washed away
tide pool
a pool of sea water found along a rocky shoreline
jetty
a wall-like structure made of rocks
scuba
underwater breathing equipment
submersibles
underwater vehicle
sonar
a device that uses sound waves
desalination
the process by which many materials move in and out of cells
24
.
solstice
point in Earth's orbit at which the hours of daylight are at their fewest or greatest
equinox
point in Earth's orbit at hours of daylight or darkness
planets
large round bodies that revolve around a star
asteroids
chunks of rock that have been described as looking like giant potatoes
comets
balls of ice and rock, circle the sun from two regions
telescope
an instrument that magnifies or make larger distant objects
satellite
natural body, like the moon
space probe
a robot vehicle used to explore deep space
25
.
magnitude
brightness
main sequence
a band of stars
universe
everything that exist
galaxy
a group of stars, gas, and dust
light-year
the distance light travels in one Earth year
26
.
matter
anything that has mass, takes up space
physical properties
characteristics or property
mass
the amount of matter in an object
weight
a measure of the pull of gravity
volume
the amount of space that an object takes up
density
concentration of matter in an object
solubility
ability of one substance to be dissolved in another substance
solid
definite shape and volume
liquid
a definite volume but no definite shape
gas
does not have definite shape nor volume
evaporation
process by which liquid changes to gas
condensation
process by which gas changes back to liquid
reactivity
ability of a substance to go through a chemical change
combustibility
chemical property of being able to burn
27
.
nucleus
very tiny center of an atom
proton
a subatomic particle with positive charge
neutron
a subatomic particle with no charge
electron
a subatomic particle wit negative charge
element
substance made up of only one kind of atom
atom
smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of that element
molecule
two or more atoms linked together
periodic table
table of elements in order of increasing atomic number
compound
a substance made of the atoms of two or more elements