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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears
A) may be produced through classical conditioning.
B) can interfere with the process of learning.
C) can be used as negative reinforcers.
D) are acquired through observational learning.
A) may be produced through classical conditioning.
Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to
A) generalizing.
B) modeling.
C) discriminating.
D) punishing.
B) modeling.
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)
A) immediate reinforcer.
B) conditioned stimulus.
C) neutral stimulus.
D) unconditioned stimulus.
B) conditioned stimulus.
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)
A) secondary reinforcer.
B) neutral stimulus.
C) unconditioned stimulus.
D) discriminative stimulus.
B) neutral stimulus.
Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?
A) a spanking for eating cookies before dinner
B) applause for an excellent piano recital
C) termination of shock after removing one's finger from a live electric wire
D) a cold root beer for mowing the lawn on a hot day
B) applause for an excellent piano recital
If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates
A) spontaneous recovery.
B) observational learning.
C) associative learning.
D) operant conditioning.
C) associative learning.
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called
A) generalization.
B) acquisition.
C) shaping.
D) spontaneous recovery.
B) acquisition.
A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly
A) before an appropriate US.
B) before an appropriate UR.
C) after an appropriate UR.
D) after an appropriate US.
A) before an appropriate US.
Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.
A) positive
B) partial
C) negative
D) conditioned
C) negative
Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good answers to his questions, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of
A) shaping.
B) modeling.
C) generalization.
D) latent learning.
A) shaping.
According to the text, learning involves
A) the development of prosocial behavior.
B) a reduction in spontaneous recovery.
C) a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
D) the ability to think abstractly.
C) a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
A) unpredictable time period has elapsed.
B) unpredictable number of responses have been made.
C) specified time period has elapsed.
D) specified number of responses have been made.
D) specified number of responses have been made.
Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first her mother granted every request, but now she does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will
A) continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.
B) come to ask for a treat only occasionally.
C) ask for a treat every time her mother takes her out, even if they don't go to the grocery store.
D) soon give up asking for a treat entirely.
A) continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.
The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________.
A) Bandura; Skinner
B) Bandura; Pavlov
C) Pavlov; Skinner
D) Skinner; Bandura
C) Pavlov; Skinner
In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?
A) operant conditioning
B) classical conditioning
C) latent learning
D) observational learning
A) operant conditioning
A child's learned fear of the mere sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)
A) unconditioned stimulus.
B) conditioned stimulus.
C) conditioned response.
D) unconditioned response.
C) conditioned response.
After getting a slight burn from the spark of a flickering campfire, Julie became afraid of getting close to lighted gas stoves. This best illustrates the adaptive value of
A) shaping.
B) generalization.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) latent learning.
B) generalization.
The “psychic secretions” that Pavlov initially considered an annoyance were
A) unconditioned responses.
B) primary reinforcers.
C) conditioned responses.
D) conditioned reinforcers.
C) conditioned responses.
The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by
A) Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.
B) Watson and Rayner's findings on fear conditioning in infants.
C) Pavlov's findings on the conditioned salivary response.
D) Bandura's findings on observational learning and aggression in children.
A) Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.
Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.
A) intermittent
B) negative
C) conditioned
D) delayed
A) intermittent
The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction
A) the CS is suppressed.
B) the CR is suppressed.
C) the CS is eliminated.
D) the CR is eliminated.
B) the CR is suppressed.
We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are
A) respondent behaviors.
B) followed by reinforcement.
C) violent or antisocial.
D) conditioned responses.
B) followed by reinforcement.
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
A) US; UR
B) CS; UR
C) CS; US
D) UR; CR
C) CS; US
In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
A) operant conditioning.
B) respondent behavior.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) observational learning.
D) observational learning.
B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both
A) positive reinforcement and punishment.
B) observational learning and spontaneous recovery.
C) continuous reinforcement and latent learning.
D) shaping and immediate reinforcement.
D) shaping and immediate reinforcement.
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
A) Watson.
B) Bandura.
C) Skinner.
D) Pavlov.
D) Pavlov.
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n)
A) positive reinforcer.
B) conditioned response.
C) negative reinforcer.
D) unconditioned response.
A) positive reinforcer.
The taste of food and relief from a headache are both ________ reinforcers.
A) primary
B) negative
C) conditioned
D) positive
A) primary
Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?
A) delayed reinforcement
B) observational learning
C) immediate reinforcement
D) classical conditioning
B) observational learning
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
A) running through a maze to get a food reward
B) playing jump rope
C) sweating in hot weather
D) clapping after a thrilling concert performance
C) sweating in hot weather
Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as
A) shaping.
B) instinctive drift.
C) modeling.
D) latent learning.
A) shaping.
You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to
A) dislike the taste of dead birds.
B) retrieve sticks and balls.
C) wag its tail whenever it is emotionally excited.
D) fear cars in the street.
B) retrieve sticks and balls.
On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A) fixed-interval
B) variable-ratio
C) variable-interval
D) fixed-ratio
C) variable-interval
Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
A) fixed-interval
B) variable-ratio
C) variable-interval
D) fixed-ratio
D) fixed-ratio
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
A) immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
B) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
C) reinforcement; punishment
D) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
B) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of money as ________ is to ________.
A) delayed reinforcer; immediate reinforcer
B) partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
C) discrimination; generalization
D) primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
D) primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
A) unconditioned stimulus.
B) conditioned stimulus.
C) positive reinforcer.
D) negative reinforcer.
D) negative reinforcer.
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A) variable-interval
B) variable-ratio
C) fixed-interval
D) fixed-ratio
A) variable-interval
Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves
A) negative reinforcement.
B) shaping.
C) cognitive processes.
D) spontaneous recovery.
C) cognitive processes.
Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by
A) latent learning.
B) biological predispositions.
C) continuous reinforcement.
D) cognitive processes.
B) biological predispositions.
Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because
A) so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.
B) it highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning.
C) it demonstrated an essential difference between animal and human learning.
D) all learning depends on reinforcement.
A) so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.
Which of the following is an example of a respondent behavior?
A) studying for a test
B) blushing when embarrassed
C) sniffing to locate the source of a strange odor
D) thanking someone for their help
B) blushing when embarrassed
Spontaneous recovery refers to the
A) return of a response after punishment has been terminated.
B) organism's tendency to respond spontaneously to stimuli similar to the CS as though they were the CS.
C) reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
D) expression of learning that had occurred earlier but had not been expressed because of lack of incentive.
C) reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown. This can most clearly be attributed to
A) partial reinforcement.
B) cognitive maps.
C) mirror neurons.
D) spontaneous recovery.
C) mirror neurons.
John B. Watson would have expressed the greatest disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether
A) consumer buying habits are influenced by newspaper advertisements.
B) worker productivity is influenced by hourly wage rates.
C) academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept.
D) aggressive behavior is influenced by threats of punishment.
C) academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept.
Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal triggered by the red light was a
A) CS.
B) US.
C) CR.
D) UR.
C) CR.
An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A) fixed-interval
B) fixed-ratio
C) variable-interval
D) variable-ratio
A) fixed-interval
It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
A) generalization
B) spontaneous recovery
C) primary reinforcers
D) biological predispositions
D) biological predispositions
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
A) shaping.
B) intermittent reinforcement.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) discrimination.
D) discrimination.
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of
A) primary reinforcement followed by secondary reinforcement.
B) secondary reinforcement followed by primary reinforcement.
C) partial reinforcement followed by continuous reinforcement.
D) continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
D) continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n)
A) unconditioned response.
B) conditioned stimulus.
C) conditioned response.
D) unconditioned stimulus.
C) conditioned response.
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule.
A) fixed-interval
B) variable-interval
C) variable-ratio
D) fixed-ratio
C) variable-ratio
B. F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's
A) personal freedom.
B) early childhood experiences.
C) pleasure-seeking tendencies.
D) cultural background.
A) personal freedom.
Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of
A) spontaneous recovery.
B) generalization.
C) punishment.
D) negative reinforcers.
C) punishment.
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n)
A) conditioned stimulus.
B) unconditioned response.
C) conditioned response.
D) unconditioned stimulus.
B) unconditioned response.
A learned association between two stimuli is central to
A) instinctive drift.
B) shaping.
C) classical conditioning.
D) negative reinforcement.
C) classical conditioning.
For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of
A) reinforcement over punishment.
B) classical conditioning over operant conditioning.
C) primary reinforcers over secondary reinforcers.
D) shaping over modeling.
A) reinforcement over punishment.
Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bed-wetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he senses an urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate
A) generalization.
B) secondary reinforcement.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) shaping.
A) generalization.
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
A) the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
B) salivation to the food in the mouth.
C) a tone.
D) salivation to the sound of a tone.
A) the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
In explaining juvenile delinquency, B. F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized
A) fear and greed.
B) faulty child-rearing practices.
C) inherited predispositions.
D) a weak internalized conscience.
B) faulty child-rearing practices.
The introduction of a pleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus is to ________.
A) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
B) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
C) reinforcement; punishment
D) acquisition; extinction
C) reinforcement; punishment
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
A) spontaneous recovery.
B) shaping.
C) delayed reinforcement.
D) secondary reinforcement.
B) shaping.
A child who is punished for swearing at home but not for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of
A) discrimination.
B) instinctive drift.
C) extinction.
D) negative reinforcement.
A) discrimination.
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
A) shaping.
B) observational learning.
C) respondent behavior.
D) spontaneous recovery.
B) observational learning.
Dogs conditioned to salivate when rubbed on their front paws also began to salivate when other parts of their bodies were rubbed. This best illustrates
A) generalization.
B) continuous reinforcement.
C) spontaneous recovery.
D) latent learning.
A) generalization.
Alex learned how to make 3-point basketball shots by successfully making very short shots before shooting from increasingly longer distances from the hoop. This learning strategy best illustrates the process of
A) delayed reinforcement.
B) observational learning.
C) shaping.
D) classical conditioning.
C) shaping.
Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
A) positive reinforcer.
B) unconditioned stimulus.
C) conditioned stimulus.
D) negative reinforcer.
A) positive reinforcer.
A learned association between a response and a consequence is central to
A) latent learning.
B) classical conditioning.
C) modeling.
D) operant conditioning.
D) operant conditioning.
B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called
A) shaping.
B) the law of effect.
C) observational learning.
D) latent learning.
B) the law of effect.