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17 Cards in this Set

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Yeast
single cells, reproduces by budding
Mold
long filamentous hyphae which may form mats of mycelia, some hyphae are septate and some nonseptate
Dimorphism
different structures at different temps (either yeast-like or hyphal growth depending on evnt- temp/nutrition
Reproduction
Asexual by forming spores
Cell Wall
Chitin (insensitive to B-lactam antibiotics
Cell Membrane
ergosterol+zymosterol- the selevtice action of imidazole antifungals based on disruption of membrane sterol synthesis
saprophytes
Most fungi saprophytes- dead stuff (only small fraction can cause disease
Mycotoxicoses
Intoxication by preformed fungal toxins (secondary metabolites) and hypersensitivity induced by fungal antigens
4 types of Mycotoxicoses
a. Ergot Alkaloid
b. Psychotropic agents
c. Aflatoxin metabolites
d. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
5 categories of infection
1. superficial
2. cutaneous: deeper into epidermis
3. subcuntaneous: dermis, subQ, muscles, fascia
4. systemic:from lung, dimorphic
5. opportunistic:in immunocompromised pts
Dermatophytes
Cutaneous
Epidermophyton, Trichophyton, Microsporum
tineas= ringworm infection Keratinophilic
Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii
SubQ
dimorphic fungi
in soil/wood/thorns
lymphocutaneous common
Histoplasmosis: Histoplasma Capsulatum
systemic
1. Mold in soil=septate hyphae w/spores, budding yeast cells in tissues in macrophages, endemic in ohio/Mississippi valley
spores engulfed by macrophages (hitch a ride on your immune system), develop into yeast
result in calcified granulomatous foci as source for reactivation
Cryptococcosis: Cryptococcus Neoformans (meningitis
systemic
oval, budding yeast w/polysaccharide capsule
from inhaling organism from soil w/bird droppings
antiphagocytic polysaccharide capsule, lung infection often asymptomatic
Candida Albicans
opportunistic
dimorphic fungus found in normal mucosal flora (oral thrush, vaginal thrush, GI, rectal)
Adhesive structures allow attachment to GI/vag/oral
Aspergillus species: Aspergillosis
opportunistic
only mold form with separate hyphae
in envt(inhalation of airbone conidia)and from exogenous source
colonization of skin, wounds, burns, cornea, external ear, paranasal sinuses
only disease in immunosuppresed pts
Pneumocystic jiroveci= P. carinii pneumonia: PCP
opportunistic
antibodies by age 2 so infected early
causes disease in all immunodef hosts (most common life-threatening HIV!)
intracystic(sporozites) & extracystic (trophozoite) forms
BAL (Bronchoalveolar lavage