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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
transmission of traits from one generation to the next
heredity
differences btw. memebers of the same species
variation
scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
Genetics
coded information in the form of hereditary units
genes
a genes specific location on a chromosome
locus
a single individual is sole parent, passes copies of all its genes to its offspring
asexual reproduction
a group of genetically identical individuals
clone
two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents
sexual reproduction
generation-to-gerneration sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism
life cycle
any cell of multicellular organism except sperm or egg cells
somatic cell
method of organizing chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type
karyotype
have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern
homologous chromosomes
one of the pair of chromosomes respomsible for determining the sex of an individual
sex chromosomes
A chromosome that is not directly invovled in determining sex
autosomes
a haploid cell such as an egg or sperm
gametes
cell containing only one set of chromosomes
haploid cell
union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote
fertilization
cellular union during fertilization
syngamy
fertilized egg
zygote
cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes
diploid cell
2-stage type of cell division; results in cells w/ half the chromosome number of the original cell
meiosis
life cycle in which there are 2 forms: multicellular diploid (sporophyte), and multicellular haploid(gametophyte)
alternation of generations
results from union of gametes, produces haploid spores that grow into gametophytes
sporophyte
haploid cell that divideds mitotically, generating a gametophyte
spores
haploid form, mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
gametophyte
1st division of a two-stage process, results in cells w/ half the chromosome number of the original cell
meiosis 1
2nd division, results in cells w/ half the chromosome number of the original cell
meiosis 2
the pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis
synapsis
paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids
tetrad
X-Shaped region representing homologous chromatids that have exchange genetic material through crossing over
chiasmata
exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during meiosis 1
crossing over
created when crossing over combines the DNA from 2 parents into a single chromosome
recombinant chromosomes