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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
popular vs. classical
popular- defines the era, not as timeless,
shorter pieces
classical- timeless, aimed at a longer
attention span
melody
a succession of single tones that coheres as a whole
pitch
the tones that make up the melody. Specific highness and lowness of a note.
Beethoven
turned formal structure into something individual
Apassionata Formata
Franz Liszt
achieved 'rockstar' status, Invented idea of solo piano recital.
fermata
to hold or pause longer than the note value indicated, duration left to the whim of the performer.
• Fermata brings emotional impact and power
obstinato
Repetition of one pitch
modulation
Move from one key area to another key area; to go from dominant back to tonic. Part of the development portion
receptive cadence
almost resolves but then doesn’t
Franz Schubert
“Everything he touched turned to song”
• Combined words and songs together
Frederic Chopin
not a programmatic writer, wrote sonatas and nocturnes
lied
A song set to a German poem for a single singer with piano accompaniment
Giuseppe Verdi
known for blending and melody
•dominated italian opera and is most important of its composers
Richard Wagner
music drama
symphonic poem
programmatic work in one lone movement for symphony orchestra
Claude Debussy
music tends to have a floating serenity,
impressionist
Igor Stravinsky
The Rite of Spring, Afternoon of a Fawn
bi/poly-tonality
bi/poly-tonality
combines 2 or more different scales to produce an exotic sound
primativism
international movement, all types of art, picasso
expressionism
intense focus on physical angst
Evolution of harmonic tradition
•tonality •12-tone system
•chromatism •new sounds
•atonality, pantonality
atonality/pantonality
no tonal center, in every single key and in no key at all
neoclassicism
stravinsky, return to classical style
electronic
synthesizers, Varese: Poem Electronique
timbre
the color of sounds, quality that makes a certain sound sound the way it does
memorial to the victims of heroshima
no tune/beat, sounds almost electronic
silence
John Cage, iconic piece
minimalism
•features repitition of short melodic fragments
•gradual change
•drones or long tones
•consonant harmony
•steady pulse
•hypnotic effect
jazz
•america's first original music
•started in new orleans
•started w/ segregation and blacks playing for each other
•harmonies became increasingly complex
Scott Joplin
ragtime, Maple Leaf Rag
Robert Johnson
standardized the 12-bar blues
dixieland jazz
jamming
Louis Armstrong
scat singing, satchmo
break
•everyone stops except one person
•highly polyphonic and rhythmically complex
swing band
meant to be danced to
•introduction of saxes
•less improv, more smooth and polished
be-bop
reaction to swing band, more grassroots, smaller ensemble
•marked beginning of modern jazz
•melodies/harmonies difficult to track
Charlie "Bird" Parker
pioneer of bebop
rhythm and blues
•a forerunner of rock and roll
•term replaced 'race music'
• rhythmically driving, backbeat oriented electrified Blues style
•cultivated by urbanized African Americans
country and western
muic orignating in the poor, white rural South
•noted for its prominent and often highly virtuosic parts of fiddle, acoustic guitar, and banjo
•lyrics often dealt w/ love, whiskey, and death
rockabilly
•another early form of rock and roll
•combines rock's driving rhythm and backbeat w/ rural 'hillbilly' country and western style
boogy woogy
changed 12-bar blues
Elvis Prestley
•"the king" of rock and roll
•"elvis the pelvis"
•blamed for corrupting the youth of america
sonata form
• Exposition
-Begins in tonic key and presents the opening material of the piece
-It then moves to a second, closely related, key and presents new material in that key
-Ends with clear cadence
-Normally played twice
•Development
-Usually moves from key to key and is generally quite turbulent
-Leads dramatically into the recapitulation, usually without an intervening cadence
•Recapitulation
-Brings back all the music of the exposition but the material that was previously presented in the second key is now played in the home key, so that the movement can end in the key in which it began
•Coda
-Short additional section sometimes added to the end of a sonata-form movement
symphonic poem
•link between music and the arts
•short orchestral work in one continuous movement
•a single-movement programmatic work for orchestra
rubato
technique in which the player slows the music down slightly before catching up a moment late; literally translates to “robbed”
music drama
combined poetry, drama, philosophy, and music into a single work of art (the “complete art work”)
Second Stage of Modernism
Marked by two opposing tendencies: extreme control and complete freedom
postmodernism
style that juxtaposes many varied elements, esp familiar ones, in new and interesting ways
3 factors of postmodernism
•deliberate return to the past
•tendency to quote directly from earlier composers and borrow music of other cultures
•reaches across trational barrier btn classical and pop music
blues notes
notes that are played or sung lower or flatter than the pitches in a conventional Western Scale