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96 Cards in this Set

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There are 4 major categories of Swine Lameness, before disease what should be considered as a primary cause of lameness in Swine?
Flooring, mechanical, and or management/facilities issues should be considered before disease.
What are the 4 major categories of swine lamenesses?
1. Flooring, mechanical, and or management issues
2. Infectious etiology
3. Fractures, including nutritional fractures
4. Osteochondrosis and DJD
Lameness is the aftermath of this Swine disease, and the agent responsible is Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
Swine Erysipelas
There are 3 forms of Swine Erysipelas, which form causes lameness in the animal?
Acute. The acute form includes lameness, abortion, and diamond skin lesions.

It is also possible with the chronic form because the acute can progress to this chronic erysipelas.
What is the major route of exposure for Swine Erysipelas?
Tonsils are the route of exposure and the source of the carrier state.
This disease in Swine causes Lameness, a humped up stance, and the reluctance to move. Typically the joints are firm due to thickening of the joint capsule and formation of granulation tissue.
Swine Erysipelas.

Cartilage erosion and blood tinged joint fluid also seen.
Diamond Skin Lesion is typical of what swine disease?
Erysipelas
What are 2 manners of control for Swine Erysipelas?
1. Immunity through bacterins which are available and work well. Booster 2 times yearly to breeding stock.
2. Cull known carriers or likely carriers
3. Eliminate exposure to dirt lots and pens
What agent is most commonly the cause of Suppurative Arthritis and Osteomyelitis in Swine, resulting in their having to be culled as there is no treatment?
A. pyogenes

Other agents include Strep and Staph sps., E. Coli, and Brucella suis
This condition in Swine is typically associated with wounds from fighting, over and undercrowding and leads to intra articular pus and periarticular abscesses?
Suppurative Arthritis and Osteomyelitis
What is the treatment for Suppurative Arthritis and Osteomyelitis in Swine?
Cull. Treatment is generally ineffective.
What are the clinical signs associated with Arthritis associated with systemic disease in Swine?
This is arthritis that develops as a result of a systemic disease so often the clinical signs include Lameness associated with swollen joints, Peritonitis, pleuritis, and meningitis.
Is there a treatment for infectious arthritis associated with a systemic disease?
Yes. Antibiotic therapy in the feed based on sensitivity testing and correcting the stressors that allowed carriers to shed the organism.
What is Osteomalcia?
Osteomalcia is the reabsorption of bone, which often leads to a pathological fracture in swine.
This condition is swine is called downer sows, and often seen during late lactation due to excessive demands for milk calcium?
Osteomalcia.
What is the prevention of Osteomalcia?
No treatment, must salvage slaughter. To prevent provide minimum 40 g Calcium in the feed and 10g Phosphorus per day.
What are the two anaerobic organisms responsible for Foot Rot in sheep and goats?
Dichelobacter nodosus (obligate parasite of the sheep hoof) and Fusobacterium (normal inhabitant of the rumen)
This small ruminant condition causes the animal to take a "praying" position when grazing, invades the sole of the foot, and has a characteristic foul odor?
Contagious Foot Rot, Virulent
How is contagious foot rot in small ruminants spread?
The infection is spread from infected animals to the ground, bedding, and manure. Typically introduced from new animals bought at auction or at fairgrounds especially during temperatures of 40 to 70 degrees and when the environment is wet.
How long is the quarantine for sheep brought into the farm to prevent the spread of Contagious/Virulent foot rot?
30 days
What are the 4 parts of treating Contagious Foot Rot in small ruminants?
Foot trimming - remove all of the infected hoof so the organism is exposed ot the air
Soaking - medicated foot baths
Antibiotics - Penicillen
Vaccination - 2 vax 4 to 6 weeks apart, usually cause an abscess
What are the 3 possible chemicals for Foot Rot treatment bathes? Which is best?
Zinc Sulfate - 10 percent solution, least toxic
Copper Sulfate - 10 percent solution, toxic if they drink it
Formalin - 5 percent solution, may scald foot, least desirable
What antibiotic is used to treat contagious foot rot in small ruminants caused by fusobacterium necrophorum and dichelobacter nodosus?
Penicillin G
Abscesses are common at the injection site of this disease and should be given prior to the wet season?
Contagious Foot Rot
Foot Scald is also called?
Interdigital dermatitis.
Foot Scald or Interdigital dermatitis is similar to Foot Rot in that the same organisms are to blame. What are the organisms and what is the deciding difference between scald and rot?
Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dicelobacter nodousus.

These are less virulent strains than those causing Foot Rot. Still seen during the wet season.
What is the major determinant/ clinical sign to indicate the ruminant has foot scald?
Slight under running of the sole is seen in Benign Foot Rot.
Lentivirus, a retrovirus is responsible for what condition is small ruminants?
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus.
This virus is present in colostrum or milk and when ingested causes Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis?
Lentivirus
What are the clinical signs of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus?
1. Leukoencephalitis of kids 2 to 6 months of age, show rear leg paralysis that is irreversible.
2. Infection of carpal joints in mature goats, hyperplastic polysynovitis

May take years for signs to appear even is infected as a neonate.
Ear mites may be a source of infection for what small ruminant condition that is important in kids?
Mycoplasma, can be isolated from the joints as well as milk and is suspected that ear mites are a source of infection
What condition is seen in kids from birth to 2 months of age, caused by ingestion of milk, and may cause signs of encephalitis?
Mycoplasma
How is Mycoplasma spread prevented?
Milk Pasteurization. Treat with Tylosin
What is a major cause of neonatal loss in the swine industry?
Crushing injuries. The Sow will have painful joints and flop down on the young instead of laying down.
You have a pig with a fever of unknown origin, what disease is to be assumed until proven otherwise?
Erysipelas. A gram positive bacteria which is potentially zoonotic, found in carrier swine and dirt lots.
True or False: There is an antiserum for Erysipelas.
True. There is an antiserum for Erysipelas however it is not found in most DVM trucks, industry use only for acute and periacute cases. Often if swine survive the acute form they will regress to the chronic form with joint pain.
There is no treatment for those presenting as the chronic form.
Fusobacterium causes Foot Rot in Small Ruminants and Cattle, what is the difference in the presentation between species?
Foot Rot in Small ruminants undermines the hoof wall, but in cattle it is between the claws of the foot.
Where do Foot Rot lesions begin in small ruminants?
Along the medial aspect of the claw. Dirt packs into the area and stays too wet, the animal is too lame to stomp the dirt out and so the lesion spreads.
You have a goat that is 3 legged lame, malodorous from a distance, and often is in pasture in the early morning and late evening. What is the suspected cause?
Foot Scald, benign foot rot. Goats are very sensitive to this condition.
What species is Mycoplasm a problem in? And Chlamydiosis?
Mycoplasm is in kids (goats) less than 2 months of age, causes severe septic arthritis.

Chlamydiosis is in lambs
What are the four components of the lameness exam?
History, Physical, Baseline Motion Exam, and Manipulations
What is the purpose of the Baseline Motion Exam?
To establish a lameness grade
What are 3 Manipulations performed during the lameness exam?
Hoof Testers, Flexions, and Diagnostic Analgesia
At what gait and pattern is the baseline motion exam performed?
Trot, straight line and on the circle
When checking for symmetry during a motion exam what 3 things should you be checking?
Arc of flight of the foot
Amount of flexion and extension in the joints
Length of stride
What is the AAEP score for a lameness that is consistently observable at a trot under all circumstances?
3
This lameness is obvious at a walk, what is the AAEP score?
4
When doing a carpal flexion what two structures should contact each other in a normal horse?
In a normal horse the fetlock should contact the caudal surface of the radius, if not then there is a decreased range of motion.
In the forelimb there is an upper leg extension and upper leg flexion, which is best for the shoulder and which is best for the elbow in detecting issues?
The upper leg extension, extends the shoulder and flexes the elbow. It is therefore best for finding elbow issues.

The upper leg flexion is best for detecting shoulder issues, as the shoulder is flexed and the elbow is extended.
This flexion test extends the elbow while flexing the shoulder?
Upper Leg Flexion
What is the goal of the Stifle Flexion test?
This flexion places more strain on the stifle while reducing the pressure on the hock, dangerous position for the manipulator.
Diagnostic Analgesia is a great tool to....
localize pain to a region.
Name 2 forelimb peripheral nerve blocks.
Palmar Digital
Abaxial Sesamoid
Low 4 point
Hig 4 point
If the goal is to block all things Navicular, which most distal peripheral block and which intra-articular blocks would be acceptable?
The Palmar Digital block is able to block the Navicular structures peripherally, while the coffin joint block would be an intra-articular option.
Which block is responsible for the sole and digital cushion of the foot?
Palmar digital
Name the 6 structures the Palmar Digital block is responsible for.
Navicular bursa
Navicular bone
Navicular suspensory apparatus
Sole
Digital Cushion
Insertion of Deep Digital Flexor Tendon
General location of the Palmar digital nerve block?
Proximal the the collateral cartilages
This nerve block is administered along the mid body of the proximal sesamoid bones to block the coronary band, coffin joint, pastern joint, dorsal hoof wall, and sesamoidian ligaments?
Abaxial Sesamoid block
To block the sesamoidian ligament one would use the Abaxial Sesamoid block, but what about for the Sesamoid bones?
Low 4 Point Block, also blocks the fetlock joint and insertion of the suspensory ligament on those sesamoid bones.
The Low 4-Point block is able to block the insertionf of the suspensory ligament on the sesamoid bones, but what are 2 Peripheral nerve blocks that block the suspensory ligament itself?
The High 4 point block (also blocks the cannon bone) and the Wheat block (preferred method).
Young races horses often have a problem in the cannon bone, what would be a good peripheral block to check this region?
The High 4 Point Block, requires extreme sterility
This block will block the lateral palmar nerve, ideal for blocking the suspensory ligament?
Wheat Block
Name the hindlimb blocks.
Palmar Digital
Abaxial Sesamoid
Low 6 point block (fore limb was a 4 point)
High 4 point block (no wheat block in hindlimb)
Tibial and Peroneal Block (good for hock pain)
The Tibal and Peroneal blocks are great for what pain?
Pain in the hock region
In the rear leg, when doing a high 4 point block what structure must be carefully avoided?
The Dorsal Metatarsal Artery
The most commonly used intra-articular block for Navicular check?
Coffin block
What is the needle placement, general area, for the Dorsal approach Coffin joint block?
Above and/or through the Coronary band. Done weight bearing.
The Dorsal approach for the coffin joint and the pastern joint are done weight bearing or non weight bearing?
Weight bearing.
What are the 4 landmarks for the Fetlock block from a dorsal approach?
1. Backside of the Cannon Bone
2. Distal end of the splint bone
3. Proximal aspect of the sesamoid bone
4. Dorsal margin of the branch of the suspensory ligament
Young races horses often have a problem in the cannon bone, what would be a good peripheral block to check this region?
The High 4 Point Block, requires extreme sterility
This block will block the lateral palmar nerve, ideal for blocking the suspensory ligament?
Wheat Block
Name the hindlimb blocks.
Palmar Digital
Abaxial Sesamoid
Low 6 point block (fore limb was a 4 point)
High 4 point block (no wheat block in hindlimb)
Tibial and Peroneal Block (good for hock pain)
The Tibal and Peroneal blocks are great for what pain?
Pain in the hock region
In the rear leg, when doing a high 4 point block what structure must be carefully avoided?
The Dorsal Metatarsal Artery
The most commonly used intra-articular block for Navicular check?
Coffin block
What is the needle placement, general area, for the Dorsal approach Coffin joint block?
Above and/or through the Coronary band. Done weight bearing.
The Dorsal approach for the coffin joint and the pastern joint are done weight bearing or non weight bearing?
Weight bearing.
What are the 4 landmarks for the Fetlock block from a dorsal approach?
1. Backside of the Cannon Bone
2. Distal end of the splint bone
3. Proximal aspect of the sesamoid bone
4. Dorsal margin of the branch of the suspensory ligament
What is an Angular Limb Deformity?
An angular limb deformity is a deviation in the frontal plane, either medially or laterally.
Define Valgus.
Valgus is a lateral deviation from the frontal plane
Define Vargus.
Vargus is a medial deviation from the frontal plane. Used to describe an angular limb deformity.
How is an Angular Limb deformity named?
Name the joint with which the angulation begins and then the direction to which the deviation occurs.
What is the most common Angular Limb Deformity?
Carpal Valgus, so starting at the Carpus the limb angles out laterally.
What is the second most common Angular Limb Deformity?
Tarsal Valgus, second to the Carpal Valgus.
What are the 2 causes for Angular Limb deformity?
Acquired or Congenital
T/F: Mild Carpal Valgus is normal in neonates.
True, most foals are born with mild carpal valgus (congenital) bc their thin chest allows the limbs to deviate. With time the foals chest expands and they grow out of it.
3 Causes of congenital ALD in foals?
Mild carpal valgus, normal in the neonate.
Periarticular laxity
Incomplete ossification of the cubiodal bones
If the foal is valgus in one leg and vargus in the other what is the term given to this condition?
Wind Swept
When conducting a visual exam for angular limb deformities, where should you stand?
Stand in front of, perpendicular to the frontal plane of the limb of interest.
This is a congenital cause of ALD that is due to soft tissue elasticity around the joint, often radiographs are normal and manual correction is possible?
Periarticular Laxity
Manually correctable ALD with abnormal radiographs is most likely do to what congenital issue?
Incomplete Ossification, requires strict exercise restriction to correct.
Two forms of acquired ALD?
Assymetric Physeal Growth due to unbalanced nutrition or excessive exercise.
Trauma
A splint or cast for ALD correction is meant to maintain axial alignment and allow further ossification without damaging the cartilage, where should the bandage end?
The bandage should end at the fetlock to prevent tendon laxity or osteopenia.
If the deviation is lateral, Valgus, where are the extensors placed?
Medially
When the physeal growth is assymetric, the goal is to slow one side while allowing the other to catch up. What are the two options and which does not allow over correction?
Periosteal transection and elevation (stripping) - will not over correct
Growth Retardation by putting a screw across the physis, CAN OVER CORRECT, must be removed.
This limb deformity category invovles the Sagittal plane?
Flexural limb deformity (FLDs) can be described as Contraction or Hyperextension