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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Three types of muscle tissue?
cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
What are the two myfilaments?
actin-thin
mysoin-thick
Five principal characteristics of muscle tissue?
1.excitability
2.conductivity
3.contractility
4.extensibility
5.elasticity
This type of tissue is innervateed by the SNS?
Skeletal
Inervated by ANS?
Cardiac and smooth muscle
Resting membrane potential of muscle tissue?
approx. -90mV
What are the cells of skeletal muscle...
they are muscle fibers, not cells arranged in an orderly fashion via Connective tissue to form a muscle organ
What cell-cell junctions are in skeletal muscle?
none
What type of tissue makes up the epimysium? Perimysium? Endomysium?
Epi and Peri-Type I dense irregular
Endo- loose connective tissue, Type III fibers
Capillaries are located in which layer of connective tissue?
endomysium
What makes up the external lamina of skeletal muscle?
reticular fibers of endomysium
How many nuclei does skeletal muscle have?
Many; multi-nucleated
What are satellite cells?
These cells serve to repair damaged tissue. Activated upon muscle injury, proliferate and differentiate to repair damage.
PM of skeletal muscle fibers
sarcolemma
Location of nuclei in skeletal muscle
Just beneathe the sarcolemma, pushed out to the edges
Thousands of invaginations of the sarcolemma of skeltal and cardiac muscle called
T-tubules
What makes up a triad?
Two terminal cisternae + one t tubule
What connects the terminal cisternae to the t-tubules?
Voltage-gated calcium channels
What is repsonsible for the subsequent calcium uptake after muscle contraction?
Ca Atpase pumps
What is the functional unit of a myofibril?
sarcomere
What boundaries make up a sarcomere?
z-line to z-line
Maxium tension can only be generated from a ______ muscle. Sarcomere=2.25 micometers.
relaxed
Three types of proteins associated with skeletal muscle?
1.contractile
2.regulatory
3.structural
What are the contractile proteins of skeletal muscle?
Actin and myosin
What are the regulatory proteins associeated with muscle contraction?
tropomyosin and troponin
Thin filaments are one microfilament (actin) strengthened by _______. This protein must also be moved for myosin to bind to actin.
tropomyosin
What are the three units of troponin and what do they bind?
TnT-binds tropomyosin
TnC-binds calcium
TnI binds actin
Myosin II (thick filament) binds ATP and actin. It is surrounded by how many microfilaments?
6
How do thick filaments assemble?
Self-assemble into 300-350 myosin molecules
Caps plus end of microfilaments
Cap-Z
Caps minus end of microfilaments
Tropomodulin
two proteins that link thick filaments together in the bare area of sarcomere
Myomesin and C-protein
Holds thick filaments to alpha-actinin ensuring that thick filaments remain centered.
Titin
Links myofibrils to laminin/attatches them to sarcolemma
Dystrophin
Links myfibrils together
Desmin; z-lines "in register"
Enzyme in H-zone/another source of ATP?
creatine kinase
White fibers generate ATP by
anaerobic glycolysis
Red fibers generate ATP by
aerobic oxidative Phosphorylation
Creatine phosphate + ADP ->
ATP + creatine
Locatin of nuclei in cardiac muscle
large central nuclei
What cell junctions are associated with cardiac muscle?
Fascia Adherens, desmosome and gap junction
What make up the intercalated disks?
Transverse portion= FA + desmosome
Lateral=gap junction
Which cells of cardiac muscle have more gap junctions atrial or ventricular?
Atrial, they are also smaller
What makes up a diad? location?
t-tubule + one terminal cisternae
Cardiac muscle
Two sources of calcium for cardiac muscle?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum and Extracellular (PM)
Two types of fibers in smooth muscle?
1.multiunit-each muscle has its own nerve supply and contract independently
2.Unitary-cells contract as a single unit(lots of gap junctions)
What type of metabolism does cardiac muscle undergo?
aerobic; lots of mitochondria
Sarcolemma invaginations of smooth muscle?
caveolae
Source of calcium in smooth muscle is mostly _________.
extracellular
intermediate filament of smooth muscle?
desmin

*vimentin in vascular smooth muscle
Desmin interconnect _________, which are analogous to z-lines in skeletal muscle.
dense bodies
Trigger signal for muscle contraction?
calcium
A skeletal muscle such as biceps is a structural and functional unit composed of all four primary tissues and, as such , is an ________
organ
location of nuclei in smooth muscle
elongated, central nucleus
what is the calcium binding protein in smooth muscle?
calmodulin; activates myosin light-chain kinase
what type of smooth muscle is found in the uterus?
myometrium
Vascular smooth muscle cells are found in the tunica media of all vessels except what?
capillaries and postcapillary venules
Smooth muscle is innervated by what functional component?
GVE
Describe the innervation of smooth muscle?
The post-ganlionic nerve fibers are unmyelinated and terminate as a series of varicosed branches. At the site at which transmission is to occur, the Schwann cell is retracted and the axon lies within a shallow groove on the surface of the smooth muscle cell. Part of the axon thus is naked, permitting free diffusion of the transmitter substance from the axon to the muscle cell
What type of synapse is made with smooth muscle?
En passant synapses
In most cases only a few muscle cells are associated with autonomic endings, and the wave of caontraction passes from one muscle cell to another by means of a ____________.
gap juncion
Visceral efferent endings occur?
The nerve branch endings that do not form specialized junctions also occur?
in smooth muscle viscera, blood vessels, and arrector pili muscle associated with hair.
-cardiac muscle
A skeletal muscle organn is surrounded by a thick later of connective tissue called the ?
epimysium
Each fasciculus is surrouned by a thinner layer of connective tissue called the?
perimysium
Each muscle fiber is sourrounded by a delicate layer of connective tissue called the ?
endomysium
Which type of tissue forms a true syncitium?
skeletal muscle tissue
Satellite cells can divide when?
when trauma occurs; sits with external lamina, and cannot regenerate an entire fiber
Fuctional component that innervates skeletal muscle?
GSE
Slow contracting ____ muscle fiber does not fatigue easily
RED
Fast contracting ___ muscle fatigues quickly
WHITE
Repetitive vigorous exercise of skeletal and cardiac muscle causes _______
hypertrophy
Where are T-tubules located in the sarcomere of skeletal muscle?
A-I junction
Myofibrils are held in register by
desmin
Where does the excitation-contraction coupling occurs?
The triad
Where do t-tubules occur in cardiac muscle?
z lines