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60 Cards in this Set

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What are the four main types of bones?
Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Examples of long bones
humerus and tibia
Examples of short bones
carpals
tarsals
Examples of flat bones
skull bones i.e. the frontal and temporal bones
examples of irregular bones
scapula, clavicle, ribs, sternum, hip, and the vertebrae
functions of bone
- provides shape, support, and protection to body structures
- act as levers that aid body movements
- site of blood cell formation
- stores certain vital inorganic salts
parts of the long bone
epiphysis at both ends
articular cartilage
diaphysis/shaft
periosteum
medullary cavity
epiphyseal growth plate
where is the ephysis?
at the articulating ends of long bones where they form joints with other bones
articular cartilage is made up of
hyaline cartilage, which helps protect and cushion the ephysis at the joint
periosteum is made up of
a thin membrane and provides points of attachments for tendons and ligaments
the diaphysis/shaft
the main body of the bone and contains an inner medullary cavity, which contains a specialized type of soft connective tissue called marrow
endochondryle bones are formed from and the process is called
formed from hyline cartilage and the process is called endochondryle ossification
intramembranous bones are formed from and the process is called
primative connective tissue by a process called intramembranous ossification
specialized cells called osteocytes
carry nutrients and waste to and from bone through special 'roadways' called canaliculi
osteoclasts
breaks down bone from inside
osteoblasts
breaks down bone from outside
bone forming cells and ddeposit calcium onto bone
intramembranous bones
form layers of connective tissue examples- flat bones of the skull
endochondral bones
formed from hyaline cartilage, which is later replaced by bone tissue
intramembranous ossification
the process of replacing connectiv etissue with bone tissue
endochondrial ossification
the process with replacing hyaline cartilage
primary ossification site
bony tissue starts to replace hyaline cartilage in the center of the diaphysis
secondary ossification ceters
appear in the epiphysis and spongy bone growth plate/metaphysis becomes apparent between the two ossification centers
factors affecting bone growth
nutrition
sunlight availability
hormones
physical exercise
Vitamin D
is found in milk and dairy products
the active form of vitamin d is formed when the inactive form...
called dehyocholesterol, is transported by blood to the skin where it is exposed to the sunlight
active form of Vitamin D
is important for the absorption of calcium on the intestine
metabolic/bone conditions
rickets
osteomalacia
osteoperosis
dwarfism
acromegaly
cretinism
# of bones in the human body
206
bones are made up of two divisions
axial skelton
appendicular skeleton
axial skeleton is made up of
bones of the skull, the Hyoid bone, the vetebral column, and the thoracic cage
the appendicular skeleton is made up of........
the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton
the Pectoral girdle is formed
by the scapula and the clavicle
# of axial bones
80
# of appendicular bones
126
the three bones that make up the hip bone
ilium, ischium, and pubis
another name for the hipbone
coaxal
three joints of the upper limb
humerus, radius, and ulna
three bones that make up the sternum
manibrium, body, and xiphoid process
which pairs of ribs are regarded as the true ribs?
1-7
what are floating ribs?
11-12 they have no cartilage
cranial bones
frontal
parietal
temporak
occipital
sphenoid
ethmoid
facial bones
nasal
maxilla
mandible
zygomatic
palatine
vomer
lacrimal
inferior nasal concave
joints
also called articulations, junctions between bones
SYNATHROSIS
NO MOVEMENT AT JOINT
CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS
fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial
amphiathrotic
slightly movable
diathrotic
while others are freely movable
syndesmosis
these joints have a thin ligament called interosseus ligament between them
sutures
joints occur betwwen the flat bones of the skull, they are immovable
gophmosis
formed by bony processes forming a joint in a bony socket. immovable
cartilaginous
bones are connected by either hyaline, or fibrocartilage
subdivisions of cartiliginous joints
synchondrosis- temporary joints that later disappear during growth
symphysis
made up of fibrocartilage permits a small amount of movement
synovial
allow free movement consists of articular cartilage, a joint capsule, and synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid
six major subdivisions of synovial joints
ball-and-socket joints
condyloid joints
gliding joints
hinge joints
pivot joint
saddle joint
ball-and-socket joint
have a globular head that articulates with a cup-shaped cavity of another bone, permits a wide range of movements
condyloid joints
involve the articulation of the ovoid end of one bone into the elliptical cavity of another bone, many tyoes of movement are possible
gliding joints
have articulating surfaces that appear flat, there is a gliding/sliding movement between the bones
hinge joints
involve the articulation of the concave surface of one bone with the convex surface of another bone
pivot joint
the cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring formed of bone and ligament