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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Muscles
Varieties
Types
The contractile organs responsible for movement in an animal
Striated (striped) and unstraited (smooth and cardiac)
Voluntary and skeletal
AB attachments
The origin and insertion of a muscle
A = origin, less movable and usually more proximal
B = insertion, the more movable and usually the more distal
Muscle action
The main movement or movements cause by contraction of a muscle
Types of muscle attachments
Tendious attachment
Aponeurotic attachment
Tendinous attachment
The dense connective tissue connecting spindle shaped or pennate muscles to bone
Aponeurotic attachment
The flat tendinous sheet associated with flat muscles such as those of the abdominal wall
Fleshy attachment
The apparent direct atachemtn of muscle tissue to bone (scapular muscles) In reality they attach to the periosteum of the bone by the connective tissue found throughout the muscle
Muscle Function Types
Agonist
Antagonist
Agonist
Produces the characteristic movement at a joint (biceps brachii m is the agonist for the flexion of the elbow joint)
Antagonist
Opposes the movement of a agonist and is smoothe and controlled (triceps brachii m is the prime mover for extension to the biceps brachii m during flexion of the elbow)
synergist
A muscle that indirectly aids the action of a prime mover (agonist)
Fixator
A muscle that stabilizes the proximal end of a limb while the distal end moves
Muscle belly
The expanded part of a muscle
Muscle head
the origin of a muscle
Muscle slips
minor divisions of a muscle attachment
Muscle architecture
how the muscle fibers are arranged will determine how much the muscle can shorten or the power of contraction
Parallel
Strap or sheet like - have muscle fibers arranged parallel to the long axis over the entire length of the muscle. These can contract the most, thus, displace the bones of a joint the most, but not as strongly as pennate muscles
Pennate muscle
A muscle that has a tendon running its length with muscle fibers that join the tendon at an angle. This allows a greater cross section of muscle issue thus greater strength of contraction but reduces the length the muscle can contract
Uni - tendons along one side
Bi - tendons along each side
Multi - tendons distributed through it
Sphincter
Have fibers arranged in rings around openings (mouth and anus) which constrict to close the openings
Muscle contraction
shortening of a muscle causing a change in the alignments of bones around a joint
Cutaneous muscles
Cutaneous trunci m. covers the lateral side of the trunk function to twitch the skin
Extrinsic mm of the thoracic limb
have an attachment to the limb and an attachment to the body
Intrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb
muscles with both their attachments on the thoracic limb
Shoulder muscles
supraspinatus and infraspinatus
Arm muscles
triceps brachii - Extensor of elbow
biceps brachii - Flexor of elbow
Extensors of the digits and carpus
Flexors of the digits and carpus
Muscles of the manus and pes
Thoracic muscles
Inspiratory mm
Diaphram
Expiratory mm
Abdominal muscle
Abdominal wall mm
Aponeurosis - flat tendons of the lateral abdominal muscles that forma sheath around the rectus abdmoinal
Rectus abdominis m - straight abdominal muscle on either side of the midline
External rectus sheath - the aponeruoses of the abdominal mm covering the rectus abdominis
Back muscles
Epaxial mm - Located above the transverse processes of the vertebrae
Hypaxial m - below the transverse processes of the vertebrae
Longus colli m - a hypaxial m located ventral to the bodies of the cervical vertebrae
Muscles of the Ventral neck
Strap mm - sternohyoid and sternothyroid mm arise from the sternum and extend crainally on the ventral mid-line of the neck just superficial to the trachea
Muscle of the Pelvic Limb
Sublumbar mm
Rump or gluteal muscle
Thigh muscle
Cranial thigh muscle
Adductor/medial thigh muscle
Caudal muscles of the thigh/hamstring mm
Muscles of the crus
Extensors of the digits and flexors of the tarsus
Flexors of the digits and extensors for the tarsus
Muscles of the Head
Muscles of facial expression - Orbicularis oculi m. sphincter fibers encircle the eye
Muscles of mastication
Extrinsic muscles of the eye
Muscles of the tounge
Muscles of the pharynx