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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Numbers of muscles in the body
650 total
50 in the face
17 to smile
40 to frown
Functions of the muscles
1. Assist in body movements
2.Assist in the movement of materials internal to the body
3.Produces heat and energy
4. Assists in maintaining posture and balance
5.Helps protect the internal organs
3 Classifications of muscle tissue
1. Skeletal
2. Smooth (visceral)
3. Cardiac
Facts about Skeletal Muscle
*Voluntary
*Striated
*Attached to skeleton directly or may be attached by tendons or aponeurosis
*Contracts quickly in response to stimulation of nerve impulses
Enclosed in epimysium
Facts about Smooth muscle
*Involuntary
*Non-striated, spindle shaped cells
*Found in vescer (stomach, intestines, urinary ducts and blood vessels)
*Contracts slowly in response to stimulation to nerve impulses
Facts about Cardiac muscle
*Involuntary
*Partially striated-1 nucleus
*found only in heart
*Contract moderately fast in response to stimulation to nerve impulses
Major structures of skeletal muscles
1. Origin (closest to the midline of the body and on immmovable bone)
2. Insertion (end of skeletal attachment and on movable bone)
3. Body (belly) main part of muscle
Epimysium
Fibrous sheath that enfolds a skeltal muscle and extends over the origin and insertion
Aponeurosis
Epimysium extension from the muscle that is continuous with the periostium of the bone.
Broad, flat sheet of connective tissue that serves as a tendon to attach muscles to bone or as fascia to bind muscles together
Tendon
Epimysium extension from the muscle as a strong cord of connective tissue that attaches to the adjacent structure.
White, glistening fibrous band of tissue that attach muscle to bone.
Adductor
Toward
Levator
Lifts
Depressor
Depresses or lowers a part
Flexor
Felxes, bends a part at a joint
Extensor
Extends, straightens a part at the joint
Rotator
medial rotation-
revolves part on its axis

Lateral rotation
(aka circumduction)-moves a part so that its distal point travels in a circle
Protractor
moves a part forward
retractor
moves a part backward
Invertor
moves a part upside down or inside out
Evertor
turns or rotates a part outward
Supinator
turns a part upward
Pronator
Turns a part downward
Dorsiflexor
moves a part toward the back
Sphincter
constricts, closes an opening
Tensor (aka fixator)
tenses, makes a part more rigid. Stabalizes the joint to help maintain posture and balance during action of prime mover
Prime mover AKA Agonist
Muscle that generates the majority of force to accomplish a movement
Antagonist
When flexed, directly opposes prime mover
Synergist
Assistes prime movers. Helpers, "working together."
The energy to produce muscle movement comes from what?
Simple sugars through metabolism
Muscles like to be ______________ to the body part that they move.
Proximal
Body movement is coordinated by____________________?
Muscle pairs
"All or none" law
Contracts fully or not at all in response to impulse.
Contracture
abnormal function because the muscle contracts "at rest."
6 Functional characteristics of muscle tissue
1.Irritability/Excitability
2.Conductivity
3.Contractility
4.Extensibility
5.Elasticity
6. Tone
IrritabilityExcitability
Ability to resonde to stimulus
Conductivity
Ability to transmit impulses
Contractility
Ability to shorten or contract "muscle twitch."
Extensibility
Ability to stretch (lengthen) and remain stretched (hold.)
Elasticity
Ability to return to norma length when stretching force is removed
Tone
Slight tension that is present in muscles even when they are at rest-provides quicker and easier response when needed.
Epimysium covers, what?
The whole muscle, under the fascia, extends to become aponeurosis
Endomysium
Covers the individual microfilament
Perimysium
Covers the muscle bundle
If listed in this order:
1. Muscle Fiber
2. Myofibril
3. Myofilament
They are in what order?
Largest to smallest
Head and face muscles control what?
chewing, talking, swallowing, facial expressions and blinking
Neck muscles control
moving the head side to side, from front to back, and in rotation
Back muscles allow
the body to bend, turn and stand erect
Chest muscles assist
in respiration and movements of the neck, arms and trunk
What 3 things do the abdominal muscles do?
1. Breath
2. Deficate
3. Childbirth
Perineal muscles function to
assist in defecation and urination and form the floor of the pelvic cavity
What does the frontalis muscles do?
Wrinkles the forehead
What does the Temporalis muscle do?
helps close the mandible (jaw)
What do the orbicularis oculi do?
Close the eyelids
What do the orbicularis oris do?
Draw lips together, kissing
What does the buccinator do?
Moves the lips for blowing, whistling, and smiling
Masseter (strongest muscle with 150lbs of pressure) does what?
Closes the jaw as in chewing
The Trapezius does 4 things, what are they?
1. Moves the shoulders by raising
2. Assists in moving the head to one side or the other
3. Hyperextends the head
4. Helps hold head erect
The Sternocleidomastoid muscle (STM) does 3 things, what are they?
1. Rotates the head from side to side
2. Flexes vertebral column to bow head
3. Helps hold head erect
What does the platysma do?
Wrinkles the neck skin and depresses the mandible
What does the deltoid do?
Moves the upper arm at the shoulder
What does the pectoralis major do?
Flexes upper arm, adducts the upper arm, and draws arm across the chest
What does the serratus anterior do?
Rotates the scapula and raises the shoulder as in full flexion and abduction of the arm
What do the intercostal muscles do?
Elevate and depress the ribs assisting in breathing
What do the Latissimus Dorsi do?
Bring the arms down forcefully
What is the Diaphragm for?
Contracts and relaxes to cause inhalation and exhalation
Three muscles compress the abdomen and rotate the trunk laterally, which ones are they?
external and internal oblique and transverse abdominus
The ________ ________ compresses the abdomen, rotates the trunk laterally, AND flexes the trunk.
Rectus Abdominus
The levator ani does what?
Forms the floor of the pelvic cavity and supports the organs
The deep transverse perinei does what?
forms the floor of the pelvic cavity
The Biceps Brachii do what?
Flex the upper arm when the hand is supinated
The Triceps brachii do what?
extend the upper arm
Brachialis and brachioradialis muscles do what?
flex the forearm
What do the Carpi muscles do?
Control hand movements
What is the function of the Digitorum muscles?
to control finger movement
The thumb is controlled by what muscle?
Pollicis
Gluteus Maximus
Helps maintain an erect posture and extends and rotates the thigh
Gluteus Medius
Abducts the thigh, rotates the thigh outward, and stabilizes the pelvis
Gluteus Minimus
Abducts the thigh, rotates the thigh outward, stabilizes the pelvis and extends the thigh
Sartorius
aDDucts and flexes the thigh and rotates it laterally
Quadriceps femoris
$ heads, extends the leg and flexes the thigh
ADDuctor
Presses the thighs together
Hamstrings
Flexes the lower leg from the knee
Gastrocnemius
Extends the foot
Tibialis anterior
flexes the foot and inverts the ankle
Peroneus Longus
everts the ankle
Soleus
inverts the ankle
Flexor digitorum
flexes the toes
Extensor digitorum
extends the toes
Isotonic contraction
Muscle becomes shorter and thicker like in lifting weights
Isometric contraction
muscle contraction remains constant while tension against it increases--like yoga