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50 Cards in this Set

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Lieder
German Art songs
Peter Ilych Tchaikovsky
(1840-1893) Russian cosmopolitain composer who composed "Romeo and Juliet", one of the most popular overtures written in the romantic era,
Art song
a musical setting of a poem for solo voice and piano
Through-composed form
A term applied to songs in which new music is used for each successive verse
Modified-strophic form
A song structure that varies the regularity of the repeated melodies of strophic form by having some verses sung to a new melody
Verismo
"Realism". An Italian operatic point of view favoring realistic subjects taken from everyday, often lower-class life
Bel canto
"Beautiful song." A vocal technique emphasizing beauty and purity of tone and agility in executing various ornamental details.
Robert Schumann
(1810-1856) Romantic German composer remembered for his songs and song cycles; Prolific composer best known for song cycles "Frauenliebe und Leben," piano music including character pieces such as "Carnaval," concertos and four symphonies.
Clara Wieck Schumann
(1819-1896) Wife of Robert Schumann, talented German concert pianist. Her compositions include lieder, solo piano music, one piano concerto, and chamber music.
Song Cycles
A series of art songs that tell a story or are otherwise related to one another
Franz Schubert
(1797-1828) Austrian composer best known for more than 600 lieder including "Erlkonig," song cycles "Die Schone Mullerin" and "Winterreise" chamber works including "Trout" piano quintet and his eighth "unfinished" symphony
Franz Liszt
(1811-1886) Hungarian virtuoso performer and composer known for solo piano music (including six Transcendental Etudes, transcriptions of songs such as "Erlkonig", and Sonata in B Minor) two piano concertos, and symphonic poems for orchestra including Les Preludes
Frank Chopin
(1810-1849) A polish composer best known for solo piano music including nocturnes, etudes, preludes, polonaises (based on a Polish dance), mazurkas (based on a Polish dance), waltzes (including "Minuet Waltz") and two piano concertos
Impressionism
Captures visual impressions rather than the literal of a subject, Example: Monet; A late nineteenth century artistic movement that sought to capture the visual impression rather than the literal reality of a subject. Also, in music, a style belonging primarily to Debussy, characterized by an emphasis on mood and atmosphere, sensuous tone colors, elegance, and beauty of sound.
Symbolism
Experimentation of rhythm, sound, clustering of image to suggest emotions, poetry not music; A subtle French poetic style from the late nineteenth century that stressed the sound and color of the words and suggested rather than clearly outlined the meaning or story behind the text
Neoclassicism
In music of the early twentieth century, philosophy that musical composition should be approached with objectivity and restraint. Neoclassical composers were attracted to the textures and forms of the baroque and classical periods
Primitivism
In music, the use of frenzied, irregular rhythms and percussive effects to evoke a feeling of primitive power, as in Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"
Expressionism
An artistic school of the early twentieth century that attempted to represent the psychological and emotional experience of modern humanity
20th/21st century musical rhythm
Mixed meters, shifted accents irregular divisions of beats
20th/21st century musical melody
Wide range, angular, atonal or bi-tonal, short motives
20th/21st century musical counterpoint
Again important, dissonant, independent lines
20th/21st century musical harmony
Tension vs. repose, tone clusters, foreign tones, dissonance!
20th/21st century musical tonality
Vague, bi-tonality, atonality, 12-tone, serialism
20th/21st century musical orchestration
Exploitation of colors and combinations of instruments
20th/21st century musical technology
The electronic age, records, recording, new media, amplification
20th/21st century musical women
Many composers, teachers, performers and conductors
Culture of the Romantic Era
Revolutionary aftermath
Rejection of Classical Reason
Success of the individual/heroes
Parliamentary Democracies-France, Germany, Italy
Nationalism (Reaction to Napoleonic Wars)
Advances in technology, medicine, agriculture
Philosophy of the Romantic Era
Power of the Individual (Subjective NOT objective)
Love of nature, the exotic, mysterious, unfamiliar, even occult & diabolical
Passionate, sensuous, exciting
Beginning of women's rights
Patronage system dies ("starving artists")
The Salon
Literary or musical gatherings that upper-class people and the aristocracy held in their homes
Character pieces
Works portraying a single mood, emotion, or idea
Etude
A study piece concentrating on a single technical problem
Mazurka
In romantic music, a small piano piece based on the Polish dance form. Prominent in the works of Chopin.
Nocturne
A "night piece" that is gentle and reflective
Polonaise
In romantic music, a small piano piece based on the Polish dance form
Tone poem/Symbolic powm
A single-movement programmatic work, relatively long and very free in form, usually involving a dramatic plot or literary idea.
Romantic Piano Musical Characteristics & Development
-Virtuosos-Superstars
-Composers are also performers, conductors, teachers & music critics (More women are famous)
-Piano!! The most popular new instrument (The "Home entertainment system!")
-Contrasts & contradictions: long symphonies & operas, short songs & piano character pieces
-Beautiful melodies & enriched harmonies
-The orchestra grows!-Bigger concert halls
-Radical & new vs Traditions: new forms develop from classical forms
Des irae
"Day of Wrath" A chant melody from the Middle Ages that represents death in music
Program symphony
A symphony with a story line or other type of program
Thematic trasformations
The practice of varying a single theme or melody through the different sections of a piece; this procedure was used especially in romantic tone poems
Hector Berlioz
(1803-1869) Born in La Cote St-Andre, France; dies at the age of 65 in Paris. Best known for program symphonies including Symphonie fantastic, Harold en italie, and Romeo et Juliette, Messe des morts (Requiem mass) and the grand opera Les Troyens (The Trojans)
Idee fixe
A single, recurring motive; for example, in Berlioz's Symphony fantastique, a musical idea representing the hero's beloved that recurs throughout that piece
Richard Strauss
(1864-1949) An important composer of program music
Bedrich Smetana
(1824-1884) Born in Litmysl, Bohemia; died at the age of 60 in Prague; Best known for "The Molda," which is one of six symphonic poems in Ma Vlast and the opera The Bartered Bride
Incidental Music
Music written to accompany a play
Concert Overture
A one-movement self contained orchestral concert piece, often in sonata form
Felix Mendelssohn
(1809-1847) Born in Hamburg, Germany; died at 38 in Leipzig, Germany; A prolific composer best known for Violin Concerto in E Minor, incidental music for A midsummer Night's Dream, five symphonies, including no. 3 "italian" and no. 4 "Scottish", and the oratorio Elijah; Brother of pianist and composer Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
(1805-1847) Born in Hamburg, Germany; died at the age of 41 in Berlin, Germany; Best known for lieder (songs) and the choral works in Gatenlieder; Sister of composer Felix Mendelssohn
Triplet
Three notes fitted into the time in which only two of those notes would normally fit
Cyclical Form
When a composer brings back a theme or motive from the first or second movement in the later movements of a symphony, etc. (like Beethoven does with his short-short-short-long motive in Symphony #5)
Antonin Dvorak
(1841-1904) Born in Nelahozeves, Bohemia; died at the age of 62 in Prague; Prolific composer, best known for his Symphony no. 9, From the New World concertos for violin and cello, Slavonic Dances for orchestra, and many string quartets and other chamber music