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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where is hyaline cartilage?
- AC
- RT
- physis
- costal C
- fetal skeleton
why is AC hyaline cartilage special?
- it has lacunae that house chondrocytes
- superficial are flat w/ 1 chondrocyte
- deep are round w/ at least 2
elastic cartilage
- Permeated with elastin fibers - Confers resiliency
- External Ear, Walls of EAM and auditory tube
- Arytnoid cartilages and epiglottis
fibrocartilage
- no perichondrium
- thick collagenous fibers w/ limited matrix
- Ligaments, Certain tendons
- Symphyseal joints: IV dick
- Articular discs: Meniscus
- hyaline cartilage turns into this w/ aging
when do superficial zones of AC calcify?
only in pseudogout
where does AC get its nourishment?
synovium
whats the deal w/ cartilage and the TMJ?
- TMJ has is formed by intermembranous ossification
- so its AC is made of fibrocartilage
Type A synovial cells
- resemble macrophages
- prominent surface ruffling w/ lysosomes & smooth-walled vesicles
Type B synovial cells
- secretory (fibroblast-like) cells w/ abundant RER
- likely source of lubricin and hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid
fibrous synovial membrane
- lies right on capsular ligament
- over intraarticular ligament and tendons
- where synovium subject to pressure
areolar synovial membrane
- loosely bound to capsular ligament
- places where it must move freely, lik suprapatellar pouch of the knee joint
adipose synovial membrane
- covers intrarticular fat pads
- olecrenon fossa
Pericellular Matrix
- Thin rim surrounding the cell (varies with disease)
- Fewer type II fibrils, mostly type VI and proteoglycans
- Transmembrane proteins for mechanical signals
Territorial Matrix
- Envelops the cell and the pericellular matrix
- More collagen fibrils, mostly small diameter
- Protects the cell from injury?
Interterritorial Matrix
- Largest matrix region by volume
- Large diameter collagen fibrils
- Responsible for major mechanical properties of cartilage
Type XI collagen
- forms fibrils with type II
- thought to influence type II fibril diameter
Type IX collagen
- found on the surface of type II
- may organize and stabilize the overall meshwork
Aggrecan
- dominant form of proteoglycan of collagen
- Combines w/ hyaluronan to form large aggregates of multiple proteoglycan molecules
- “Bottle brush appearance
what is the function of the collagen matrix?
- prevents molecules from swelling to full volume
- Matrix is always pressurized
- the collagen molecules are trapping proteoglycan molecules in the matrix to a smaller volume than they would be (what gives us elasticity)
- Lets cartilage resist compression
Collagenase
- MMP-1, 13
- cleaves type II
Stromelysin
- MMP-3
- cleaves type IX and XI collagens, aggrecan, and other small proteoglycans
Aggrecanase
- this and and some MMPs cleave proteoglycan
- Loss of aggrecan
- Loss of “bound” water
- Loss of function
stickler syndrome
- genetic defects in type II and XI collagen
- premature development of osteoarthritis
Boundary lubrication
- surface of cartilage binds lubricin
- for low velocity
Hydrodynamic lubrication
- exuded water film
- for high velocity
what is in the synovium?
- Lower protein, higher albumin
- Hyaluronan, phospholipids, glycoproteins (from B synoviocytes)
- AP (from chondrocytes)
- Plasminogen to recude clot formation (from synovium and cartilage)
how does synovial fluid change in arthritis?
- increased volume
- goes from clear to yellow
- increased opacity
- decreased viscosity