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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The set of all elements of interest in a particular study
Population
Subset of population
Sample
The art and science of collecting, analyzing and presenting and interpreting data
Statistics
All the data collected in a particular study
Data Set
The entries on which data is collected
Elements
A charateristic of interrest for the elements
Variable
The set of measurments obtained for a particular element
Observation
Nominal Scale
The scale of measurment for a variable when the data are labels or names used to identify an attribute of an element. Nominal data may be non numeric or numeric
Ordinal scale
The scale of measurement for a variable if the data exhibit properties of nominal data and the order or rank of the data is meaningful. Ordinal data may be numeric or non numeric.
Interval scale
The scale of measurement for data if the data demonstrate the properties of Ordinal data and the interval between the values is expressed as a fixed unit of measure. Interval data are always numeric.
Ratio Scale
The scale of measurement for a variable if the data demonstrate all the properties of interval data and the ratio of the two values is meaningful. Ratio data are always numeric.
Categorical data
Labels or names used to identiutefy an attribute of each element. Categorical data use either the nominal or ordinal scale of measurement and may be non numeric or numeric.
Quantitative data
NUmeric values that indicate how much or how many of something. Quantitative data are obtained using either the interval or ratio scale of measurement
Quantitative variable
A variable with quantitaive data
Cross -sectional data
Data collected at the same or approximately the same point in time.
Time series data
Data collected over several time periods
Descriptive statistics
Tabular, graphical, and numerical summeries of data
The set of all elements of interest in a particular study.
Population
Sample
A subset of the Population
Census
A survey to collect data on the entire
Labels or names used to identiutefy an attribute of each element. This type of data use either the nominal or ordinal scale of measurement and may be non numeric or numeric.
Categorical data
The process of using data obtained from a sample to make estimates or test hypothesis about the characteristics of a population
Statistical inference
The process of using procedures from statistics and computer science to extract useful information from extremely large databases
Data Mining
A tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of items in each of several nonoverlapping classes
Frequency of distribution
Frequency of distribution
A tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of items in each of several nonoverlapping classes
Data Mining
The process of using procedures from statistics and computer science to extract useful information from extremely large databases
The process of using data obtained from a sample to make estimates or test hypothesis about the characteristics of a population
Statistical inference
Relative frequency
Relative frequency of a class =
Frequency of the class / n where n is the number of observations in the data set
Frequency of the class / n where n is the number of observations in the data set
Relative frequency
Relative frequency multiplied by 100
Percent frequency
Approximate class width
(largest data value - Smallest data value) / Number of Classes

pg 40
A graph of cumulative distribution showing data values on the horizontal axis and either the cummulative frequencies or the cumulative percent frequencies on the vertical axis
Ogive




Page 44
Ogive
A graph of cumulative distribution showing data values on the horizontal axis and either the cummulative frequencies or the cumulative percent frequencies on the vertical axis pg. 44
Whree steps are necesary to define the classes for a frequency distribution
1. Determine the number of nonoverlapping classes
2. determine the width of each class
3. determine the class limits

pg 39
A graphical device for presenting relative and percent frequency for categorical data.
Pie chart


Page 35
Cumulative frequency distribution
Shows the NUMBER of data items with values less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class pg 43
Shows the NUMBER of data items with values less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class
Cumulative frequency distribution

Pg 43
A simple garphical summary of data in which each data value is represented by a dot above the horizontal axis . The horizontal axis shows the range for the data.
Dot Plot

Page 41
An exploratory data analysis used to show rank,order and shape of data simutaneously.
Stem and Leaf display
pg 48
The two steps to develop a stem and leaf display are .
1. Arrange the leading digits of each data value to the left of a vertical line
2. To the right of the vertical line record the last digit for each data value
pg 49
A tabular summary of data for two variables
Crosstabulation
Pg 53
The frequency and relative frequency distributions constructed from the nargins of a crosstabulation table provide information about the variables. Do they shaed any light on the relationship of the variables?
No they do not shed any light on the relationship between variables they provide information about each of the variables individually. Pg 55
Converting the entries in a crosstabualtion table into row or column percentages can provide into the _______ of the variables
Relationship

pg 55
The data from two or more crosstabulations is combined to form what kind of data that is used to form a summary crosstabulation to show how two variables are related
Aggregated
Page 56
The reversal of conclusions based on aggregated or unaggregated data is called
Simpsons paradox

Page 56
Graphical representation of the relationaship between two quantitative variables is called what? what do you call the line that provides an approximation of the relationship.?
Scatter diagrahm and trendline

Page 57
When dealing with categorical data name four ways to summarize the data using tabular methods
Frequency distribution. relative frequency distribution, percent frequency distribution and crosstabulation tables
page 64
When dealing with categorical data name two ways to summarize the data using graphical methods
Bar charts and Pie charts
Page 64
When summarizing data we divide data into two categories or types. What are they?
Categorical data and Quantitative Data

Page 64
When dealing with Quantitative data name five ways to summarize the data using graphical methods
Dot plot
Histogram
Ogive
Stem and Leaf Diagrahm
Scatter Diagrahm
When dealing with quantitative data name seven ways to summarize the data using tabular methods
frequency distribution, relative frequency distribution,percent frequency distribution,cumulative frequency distribution, cumulative relative frequency distribution,cumulative percent frequency distribution and crosstabulation page 64
categorical data
Labels or names used to identify categories of like items
page 64
Labels or names used to identify categories of like items
Categorical data
Page 64
Quantitative data
Numerical values that demonstrate how much or how many

Page 64
Frequency distribution
a tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes page 33 and 64
A tabular summary of data showing the fraction or proportion of data values in each of several non overlapping classes
Percent frequency distribution
page 34 and 64
Percent Frequency Distribution
a tabular summary of data showing the percentage of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes pages 34 and 64
a tabular summary of data showing the percentage of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes
Percent Frequency Distribution
pages 34 and 64
A graphical device for depicting qualitative data that have been summarized in a frequency, relative frequency or percent frequency distribution
Bar Chart

Page 35
A graphical device for presenting data summaries based on subdivision of a circle into sectors that correspond to the relative frequency of a class
Pie Chart
Page 35
A graphical presentation of a frequency distribution or percent frequency distribution or relative frequency distribution of quantitative data constructed by placing the class intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies, relative frequencies or percent frequencies on the vertical axis
Histogram
page 41 and 64
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the number of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class
Cummulative frequency distribution

Page 43 and 64
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the fraction or proportion of data values that are less than or equal to the the upper class limit of each class
Cumulative relative frequency distribution

Page 44 and 64
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the percentage of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class
Cumulative percent frequency distribution

Page 44 and 64
A graph of cumulaitive distribution
Ogive
Page 44 and 64
Formula for Relative frequency
Frequency of the class / n

Page 34 and 64
Methods that use simple arithmetic and easy to draw graphs to summarize data quickly
Exploratory data analysis
page 48 and 64
An exploratory data analysis technique that simutaneously shows rank order and provides insight about the shape of the distribution of quantitative data
Stem and Leaf display
Page 48 and 64
A tabular summary of Data for two variables. The classes for one variable are represented by the rows ; the classes for the other variable are represented by the columns
Crosstabulation
Page 53 and 64
conclusions drawn from two or more seperate crosstabulations that can be reversed when the data are aggregated into a single crosstabulation
Simpsons Paradox

Page 56 and 64