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70 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
The set of all elements of interest in a particular study

Population

Subset of population

Sample

The art and science of collecting, analyzing and presenting and interpreting data

Statistics

All the data collected in a particular study

Data Set

The entries on which data is collected

Elements

A charateristic of interrest for the elements

Variable

The set of measurments obtained for a particular element

Observation

Nominal Scale

The scale of measurment for a variable when the data are labels or names used to identify an attribute of an element. Nominal data may be non numeric or numeric

Ordinal scale

The scale of measurement for a variable if the data exhibit properties of nominal data and the order or rank of the data is meaningful. Ordinal data may be numeric or non numeric.

Interval scale

The scale of measurement for data if the data demonstrate the properties of Ordinal data and the interval between the values is expressed as a fixed unit of measure. Interval data are always numeric.

Ratio Scale

The scale of measurement for a variable if the data demonstrate all the properties of interval data and the ratio of the two values is meaningful. Ratio data are always numeric.

Categorical data

Labels or names used to identiutefy an attribute of each element. Categorical data use either the nominal or ordinal scale of measurement and may be non numeric or numeric.

Quantitative data

NUmeric values that indicate how much or how many of something. Quantitative data are obtained using either the interval or ratio scale of measurement

Quantitative variable

A variable with quantitaive data

Cross sectional data

Data collected at the same or approximately the same point in time.

Time series data

Data collected over several time periods

Descriptive statistics

Tabular, graphical, and numerical summeries of data

The set of all elements of interest in a particular study.

Population

Sample

A subset of the Population

Census

A survey to collect data on the entire

Labels or names used to identiutefy an attribute of each element. This type of data use either the nominal or ordinal scale of measurement and may be non numeric or numeric.

Categorical data

The process of using data obtained from a sample to make estimates or test hypothesis about the characteristics of a population

Statistical inference

The process of using procedures from statistics and computer science to extract useful information from extremely large databases

Data Mining

A tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of items in each of several nonoverlapping classes

Frequency of distribution

Frequency of distribution

A tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of items in each of several nonoverlapping classes

Data Mining

The process of using procedures from statistics and computer science to extract useful information from extremely large databases

The process of using data obtained from a sample to make estimates or test hypothesis about the characteristics of a population

Statistical inference

Relative frequency

Relative frequency of a class =
Frequency of the class / n where n is the number of observations in the data set 
Frequency of the class / n where n is the number of observations in the data set

Relative frequency

Relative frequency multiplied by 100

Percent frequency

Approximate class width

(largest data value  Smallest data value) / Number of Classes
pg 40 
A graph of cumulative distribution showing data values on the horizontal axis and either the cummulative frequencies or the cumulative percent frequencies on the vertical axis

Ogive
Page 44 
Ogive

A graph of cumulative distribution showing data values on the horizontal axis and either the cummulative frequencies or the cumulative percent frequencies on the vertical axis pg. 44

Whree steps are necesary to define the classes for a frequency distribution

1. Determine the number of nonoverlapping classes
2. determine the width of each class 3. determine the class limits pg 39 
A graphical device for presenting relative and percent frequency for categorical data.

Pie chart
Page 35 
Cumulative frequency distribution

Shows the NUMBER of data items with values less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class pg 43

Shows the NUMBER of data items with values less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class

Cumulative frequency distribution
Pg 43 
A simple garphical summary of data in which each data value is represented by a dot above the horizontal axis . The horizontal axis shows the range for the data.

Dot Plot
Page 41 
An exploratory data analysis used to show rank,order and shape of data simutaneously.

Stem and Leaf display
pg 48 
The two steps to develop a stem and leaf display are .

1. Arrange the leading digits of each data value to the left of a vertical line
2. To the right of the vertical line record the last digit for each data value pg 49 
A tabular summary of data for two variables

Crosstabulation
Pg 53 
The frequency and relative frequency distributions constructed from the nargins of a crosstabulation table provide information about the variables. Do they shaed any light on the relationship of the variables?

No they do not shed any light on the relationship between variables they provide information about each of the variables individually. Pg 55

Converting the entries in a crosstabualtion table into row or column percentages can provide into the _______ of the variables

Relationship
pg 55 
The data from two or more crosstabulations is combined to form what kind of data that is used to form a summary crosstabulation to show how two variables are related

Aggregated
Page 56 
The reversal of conclusions based on aggregated or unaggregated data is called

Simpsons paradox
Page 56 
Graphical representation of the relationaship between two quantitative variables is called what? what do you call the line that provides an approximation of the relationship.?

Scatter diagrahm and trendline
Page 57 
When dealing with categorical data name four ways to summarize the data using tabular methods

Frequency distribution. relative frequency distribution, percent frequency distribution and crosstabulation tables
page 64 
When dealing with categorical data name two ways to summarize the data using graphical methods

Bar charts and Pie charts
Page 64 
When summarizing data we divide data into two categories or types. What are they?

Categorical data and Quantitative Data
Page 64 
When dealing with Quantitative data name five ways to summarize the data using graphical methods

Dot plot
Histogram Ogive Stem and Leaf Diagrahm Scatter Diagrahm 
When dealing with quantitative data name seven ways to summarize the data using tabular methods

frequency distribution, relative frequency distribution,percent frequency distribution,cumulative frequency distribution, cumulative relative frequency distribution,cumulative percent frequency distribution and crosstabulation page 64

categorical data

Labels or names used to identify categories of like items
page 64 
Labels or names used to identify categories of like items

Categorical data
Page 64 
Quantitative data

Numerical values that demonstrate how much or how many
Page 64 
Frequency distribution

a tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes page 33 and 64

A tabular summary of data showing the fraction or proportion of data values in each of several non overlapping classes

Percent frequency distribution
page 34 and 64 
Percent Frequency Distribution

a tabular summary of data showing the percentage of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes pages 34 and 64

a tabular summary of data showing the percentage of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes

Percent Frequency Distribution
pages 34 and 64 
A graphical device for depicting qualitative data that have been summarized in a frequency, relative frequency or percent frequency distribution

Bar Chart
Page 35 
A graphical device for presenting data summaries based on subdivision of a circle into sectors that correspond to the relative frequency of a class

Pie Chart
Page 35 
A graphical presentation of a frequency distribution or percent frequency distribution or relative frequency distribution of quantitative data constructed by placing the class intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies, relative frequencies or percent frequencies on the vertical axis

Histogram
page 41 and 64 
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the number of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class

Cummulative frequency distribution
Page 43 and 64 
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the fraction or proportion of data values that are less than or equal to the the upper class limit of each class

Cumulative relative frequency distribution
Page 44 and 64 
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the percentage of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class

Cumulative percent frequency distribution
Page 44 and 64 
A graph of cumulaitive distribution

Ogive
Page 44 and 64 
Formula for Relative frequency

Frequency of the class / n
Page 34 and 64 
Methods that use simple arithmetic and easy to draw graphs to summarize data quickly

Exploratory data analysis
page 48 and 64 
An exploratory data analysis technique that simutaneously shows rank order and provides insight about the shape of the distribution of quantitative data

Stem and Leaf display
Page 48 and 64 
A tabular summary of Data for two variables. The classes for one variable are represented by the rows ; the classes for the other variable are represented by the columns

Crosstabulation
Page 53 and 64 
conclusions drawn from two or more seperate crosstabulations that can be reversed when the data are aggregated into a single crosstabulation

Simpsons Paradox
Page 56 and 64 