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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Frontier
A sparsley populated, undeveloped area on the outskirts of a civilization.
Feudalism
Loosley organised system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords, or vassals.
Feudal contract
An exchange of pledges between lords and vassals.
Fief
an estate.
Knight
a mounted warrior.
Tournament
As feudal warfare decreased in the 1100's, tournaments were mock battles came into fashion.
Chivalry
A code of conduct adopted by knights in the Middle ages. It required knights who were brave, loyal, and true to their word.
Troubadours
Wandering poets who adopted the view that women be protected and cherished.
Manor
The heart of the medieval economy, it was the lord's estate.
Serfs
Most peasants on a manor who were bound to the land.
Sacraments
Sacred rights of the church.
Tithe
A tax equal to one tenth of the people's income. The church required the christians to pay it to support parishes.
Secular
worldly.


Rome became the most powerful *secular* force in Medieval Europe.
"papal supremacy"
Authority over all secular rulers.
cannon law
Medieval Church's own body of laws.
What was exocommunication and what happened tho people who were "exocommunicated"?
The most severe penalty for those who disobeyed Church law.

People who were exocommunicated could not recieve sacrements or a Christian burial.
interdict
An order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from recieving most sacrements and Christian burial.
What is simony? Who outlawed it and when?
The selling of Church offices.


In 1073 Pope Gregory VII outlawed marraige for priests and simony.
friars
Monks who did not live in isolated monastaries but traveled around Europe's growing towns preaching to the poor.
antisemitism
Prejudice against Jews.
charter
A written document that set out the rights and privileges of the town.
capital
Money for investment
partnership
Merchants joined together in an organization.
the bill of exchange?
The most important practice adopted from Middle Eastern merchants. A money exchange so that merchants did not have to carry around gold coins that could easily be stolen.
What were tenant farmers and about what time were they most popular?
Most peasants in western Europe in 1300 who paid rent for their land or hired farm laborers.
What was the middle class and when did it appear?
Included merchants, traders, and artisans in about 1000.
usury
Lending money at interest.
guilds
In the middle ages, association of merchant or artisans who cooperated to pritect their economic interests.
apprentice
At about the age of seven, someone who is in train to be a guild master.
journeymen
Salaried workers.
exchequer
A treasury that collected taxes.
law
A legal system based on custom and court rulings.
jury
A group of men sworn to speak the truth.
lay investiture
The emperor or another person who is not a member of the clergy presented bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office.
Annul
invalidate
Crusade
holy war
Schism
split
Levy
collect
Religious toleration
policy of allowing people to worship as they choose
Scholasticism
Scholars used this method to resolve the conflict between faith and reason.
Vernacular
everyday languages of ordinary people
Epics
long narrative poems
Flying buttresses
stone supports that stood outside the church
Illumination
The artistic decoration of books
Epidemic
outbreak of rapid spreading disease
inflation
rising prices