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261 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abolitionist
a person who is against slavery
adequacy
sufficiency; enough to be considered acceptable
alien
a person living in the United States who is not an American citizen.
allies
countries that help each other
Allies
all the nations who fought Germany and its supporters in World Wars I and II.
amendment
an addition or change
annual percentage rate (APR)
the percent of interest a lender changes per year
apartheid
a policy in South Africa that separated black Africans from white society.
appeal
to bring a court decision from a lower court to be reexamined in a higher court
apprentice
someone who learns a trade from an expert called a master.
apprenticeship
a period of training that includes on-the-job training.
aquifer
an underground layer of rock or earth that holds water
assumption
a statement accepted as true without proof; a belief
bachelor's degree
a degree earned after a four-year college education
bar graph
a graph used to make comparisons
barbarian
a person considered to be inferior and ignorant
bill
a proposed law
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution, listing the rights of individuals.
bloc
a group of nations that acts together for military, political, or economic purposes.
boycott
to protest by refusing to use a service or to buy a certain item.
broadcast
the sending of a radio or TV program by radio waves.
budget
a detailed plan showing earnings and expenses over a period of time.
campaign
a series of events designed to get people to vote a certain way.
candidae
a person who runs for public office.
capital
money, assets, or property used for investment
cash crop
a crop grown for sale rather than for personal use
cause
why something happens
cease-fire
a pause in fighting
century
a period of 100 years
charter
a plan that sets up an organization and defines its purpose
checks and balances
the idea that each branch of a government has powers that limit the other branches' power.
child labor
the practice of using children as workers
chronometer
a very accurate clock
circle graph
graph used to show parts of a whole; also known as a pie chart
civics
the branch of political science that deals with the right and duties of citizens
civilian
a person not in military or government service
civilization
the society and culture of a particular group, place, or period.
civil rights
freedoms guaranteed to citizens, including the right to be treated equally
civil war
a war between people who live in the same country
climate
the general weather of a region over a long time
Cold war
the struggle for world power between the United States and the Soviet Union
colony
a settlement or group of settlements far from the home country
communicate
to exchange information
communism
a political and economic system that does away with private property and places production under government control
compare
to tell how people, events, or things are alike
composer
a person who writes music
composing
producing rich organic matter by letting food waste and plants decay
computer
an electronic machine for processing, storing, and recalling information.
conclusion
a logical judgment based on facts
Confederacy
the southern states during the American Civil War
conquistador
Spanish word menaing "conqueror"
conservative
a person who wants to maintain traditional and established values and practices
Constitution
the paln for the United States government, proposed in 1787
consumenr
a person who buys and uses goods and services
containment
a policy to prevent the spread
of communism to other nations
context
1. the rest of the words in a sentence
2. one particular sistuation
contrast
to tell how people,events, and things are different
cooperative
people who join together to ensure the best price for their products
corporation
a business owned by stockholders
crude oil
untreated oil
culture
customs or way of life
currency
a kind of money
current
part of any body of water that flows in a definite direction
deadlocked
unable to agree; a tie vote
defense contract
agreement that government makes with a private company that produces weapons and supplies needed by the military
defense industry
companies that produce military supplies
deferment
a temporary postponement of military service
demand
the amount of goods or services consumenrs are willing to buy at a certain price at a given time
democracy
a system of government in which the power to make choices belongs to the people
desertification
the turning of profitable land into desert
detail
small piece of information
diagram
a drawing that shows steps in a process or how something is organized
diplomat
a person who handles relations between nations
displaced
forced to leave ones home, often by climate change, natural disaster, or war
discrimination
the unequal and unfair treatment of a person or group
drought
a long period of unusually dry weather
draft
a system of required military service
due
process steps in the legal process that protect the rights of an accused person
duty
a tax collected on goods brought into a country and sometimes on goods sent out of a country
dynasty
a family of rulers whose generations govern one after another over a long time
e-mail
a message a writer sends electronically using a computer
economics
the study of how people use their resources to meet their needs
ecotourism
travel that appeals to people with environmental interests
effect
what happens as the result of a cause
efficiency
the state of being productive without wasting time, money, or energy
elastic demand
a willingness to buy that increase or decrease as the price of good or service changes
elastic supply
an amount of good or dervice that increases or decreases as the price changes
elevation
the height of the land above sea level
Emancipation Proclamation
the statement made by President Abraham Lincoln declaring freedom for slaves in states fighting against the Union during the American Civil War
empire
a group of widespread territories or nations under a single ruler or government
entitlement
a government program, such as food stamps or veterans' pensions, available to people who meet its requirements
environment
all of the living and nonliving things that make up a place
equator
an imaginary circle exactly halfway between the North and South poles
estimate
to guess an amount based on past experience
excise tax
tax on a specific item, such as cigarettes, alcohol, or gasoline
executive branch
the branch of government that carries out the laws
export
1) to send and sell a nation's goods to other nations
2) a good produced in one country and sent to another country for sale
fact
a statement of something that can be proved
federal deficit
the amount of money the national government spends in excess of its income
federal government
the government with authority over the entire Unted States
fixed expenses
costs thst stay the same each month
flat tax
an income tax under which everyone pays the same percentage of his or her wages
flexible expenses
costs that vary from month to month
free enterprise system
an economic system in which buyers affect which goods and services are produced
free trade
importing and exporting without political barriers, such as tariffs or taxes.
general election
a regularly scheduled election for state, local, or federal officials
geography
the study of Earth's places and peoples
glacier
a huge mass of ice that moves slowly over land
glossary
an alphabetical listing of important words and their definitions
government
the system of laws and political bodies that make it possible for nation, a state, or a community to function
graph
a drawing that is used to compare numerical information
gross national product(GNP)
the money value of all good, sevices, and products of a nation's industries.
groundwater
an underground source of water, such as a spring, well, pond, or aquifer
guerrilla
a fighter or style of fighting that uses irregular and indeoendent tactics
gun control
legal limits on the sale of guns to the public
hasty generalization
a broad statement based on little or no evidence
hazardous waste
something thrown away that is harmful to the environment
iceberg
a huge block of floating ice that has broken off from a glacier
immigrant
a person who moves from his or her homeland to another country
immune
protected against a disease
impeach
to accuse a public official of misconduct; sometimes to additionally remove that public official from office
implied
suggested, but not stated outright
import
1) to bring in or purchase goods from another country
2) a good brought into a country from another country
incentive
a reason for action
income tax
a tax on person's earnings
indentured servant
a person who works for a set period of time in exchange for something of value, such as fare to another country
indict
to formally charge someone with a crime
inelastic demand
a willingness to buy that is not affacted when the price of good or service changes
inelastic supply
an amount of good or service that cannot change
inference
an idea a person figures out based on details in given material and on what the person already knows
interdependent
several parts, such as nations, relying on one another to be successful
interest
the fee paid for borrowing money
interned
to be forced to live in a camp away from home
internet
a network of computers connected by telephone lines
internship
a temporary job assignment
job rotation
a system that trains workers in many tasks so they can step into otherjobs when the need arises
job shadowing
following a worker on a typical day to observe his or her job responsibilities
judicial branch
the branch of government that interprets laws
judicial review
the federal courts' power to determine whether a law or an excutive action follows the Constitution
justice
1) fair and equal treatment under the law
2) a judge who serves on Supreme Court
labor force
all the people capable of working
labor union
a group of workers organized to improve working conditions and to protect the interests of its members
inelastic demand
a willingness to buy that is not affacted when the price of good or service changes
inelastic supply
an amount of good or service that cannot change
inference
an idea a person figures out based on details in given material and on what the person already knows
interdependent
several parts, such as nations, relying on one another to be successful
interest
the fee paid for borrowing money
interned
to be forced to live in a camp away from home
internet
a network of computers connected by telephone lines
internship
a temporary job assignment
job rotation
a system that trains workers in many tasks so they can step into otherjobs when the need arises
job shadowing
following a worker on a typical day to observe his or her job responsibilities
judicial branch
the branch of government that interprets laws
judicial review
the federal courts' power to determine whether a law or an excutive action follows the Constitution
justice
1) fair and equal treatment under the law
2) a judge who serves on Supreme Court
labor force
all the people capable of working
labor union
a group of workers organized to improve working conditions and to protect the interests of its members
landfill
a palce where trash id buried
laser
a narrow beam of intense light
latitude
distance north or south of the equator
legislative branch
the branch of government that makes laws
legislature
a group of persons that makes the laws of nation or state
liberal
a person who supposrts political change
line graph
a graph using lines to show how something increses or decreses over time
literate
able to read and write
logic
a systemic method of thinking that is based on reasoning corrrectly
longitude
distance east or west on earth, measured from the Prime Meridian in Greenwich, England; also called meridians
main idea
the topic of a paragraph, passage, or diagram
market
1) a palce where buyers and sellers meet
2) potential customers for a product or service
master
an experienced tradesperson
media
agencies of communication, such as televison, radis, newspapers, and magazines
mediator
a person who settles differences between persons or groups
mentoring
teaching a less experienced person about a job through example and discussion
meridians
the lines on a map or globe that are used to measure distances east and west on Earth; lines of longitude
microchip
a tiny electrical circuit
migrate
to move from one place to another
minutemen
American colonists who were ready to fight a minute's notice
mission
a settlement centered around a church, established for purpose of winning people over to religion
navigator
a person who charts the position and course of a ship during a voyage
net income
money left after taxes are paid
neutral
refusing to be on one side or the other
nominate
to choose a canditate to run for an elected office
opinion
a statement that expresses what a person or group thinks or believes
opportunity cost
the cost of choosing one thing over another
orchestra
a large group of people who plays a variety of musical instruments together
ordinance
a law or regulation
override
to cancel the excutive branch's veto or rejection of a proposed law
overgrazing
the practice of letting too many animals feed on an area's grasses of of letting animals feed in one place for too long
paralles
the lines on a map or globe that are used to measure distances from the equator; lines of latitude
parliament
a lawmaking body
peasant
a poor person who owns or rents a small piece of land that he or she farms, especially in poorer countries
pendulum
a suspended weight, usually in a clock, that swings back and forth at regular intervals
persuasive
intended to encourage people to have certain opinion or to take a certain action
point of view
how someone feels or thinks
political action committee(PAC)
a group that gives money to candidates who have interests similar to its own
political cartoon
a drawing that expresses an opinion about an issue
political map
a map that focuses on showing boundaries, such as those between countries or states
political party
a group of people who have similar ideas about an issue
politics
ideas and actions of government
precipitation
moisture that falls to Earth as rain, snow, or some other form
predicting outcomes
trying to figure out what the results of events will be
primary election
an election to choose delegates to the nominating convention at which a political party decides on candidates to run for office in the general election
prime minister
the head of parliament
probable cause
good reason to link a suspect with a crime and to make an arrest
profit
to make money by selling something at higher price than the original cost
progressive tax
a plan under which the percentage of person's wages paid as income tax increses as the wages increse
property tax
tax on value of something that person owns
protectionist
supporting tariffs on imports to protect a nation's own produces of goods and services
province
a political region in some countries that is similar to a state in the United States
pueblo
Native American settlements with apartment-like buildings
quality circle
a group of workers who check the quality of products and services they produce
quota
a set limit of something such as imports
racist
favoring one race of people over another
recycling
reusing solid and non-solid waste for the same or new purposes
reformer
a person who works to change things for the better
regiment
a large military group
region
an area thet differs in one or more ways from the places around it
register
to complete a form with such things as name, address, and date of birthin order to vote
reparations
money paid to make up for damages, such as suffering during wartime
repeal
to take back or do away with something, such as a law
republic
1) a self-governing territory usually headed by a president
2) a government in which the power is given to elected officials who represent the people
revenue
income collected or produced
sales tax
tax on a purchase
sanction
an economic or military measure used to force a nation to stop violating an international law or human right
scale
a set of marks that compares the distance on a map to actual diatance
scarce
describes a limited supply of something that is in demand
self-defence
to defend oneself or one's property
seperation of powers
a system that divides the functions of government among independent branches so that no one branch becomes too powerful
sequence
a series of events that follow one another in particular order
service industry
business that employes people who meet the needs of other people
smallpox
a deadly disease that has been virtually eliminated through vaccination
soft money
money donated to a political party for supposedly nonpolitical uses, and which is not subject to the limitations on campaign contributions
sound
a long, wide ocean inlet
stock market
a palce where shares in companies are bought and sold
strike
to stop work in protest
suffrage
the right to vote
summmarize
to reduce a large amount of information into a few sentences
supply
the amount of goods and services sellers are willing to offer at certain prices at a given time
switchboard
a device for controlling, connecting, and disconnectiong many telephone lines within one building or location
table
a type of list that organizes information in columns and rows
tariff
a tax on imports
technology
the tools and methods used to increse production
telecommunications
ways to send messages over long distances
timeline
an illustration that shows when a series of events took place and the order in which they occurred
topic sentences
the specific sentence in a paragraph that contains its main idea
topsoil
the soil on Earth's surface, in which the root of most plants ususlly take hold
trade deficit
the value of the nation's imports that exceeds the value of the nation's exports
transistor
a small device that controls the floe of the electricity in electronic devices
tree line
the beginning of an area where temperatures are too cold for trees to grow
tropics
the area on Earth that receives almost direct rays from the sun year-round
tundra
a treeless region with a thin layer of solid over permanently frozen earth
Union
the northern states during the American Civil War
union
see labor union
U.S.history
history of the area now knows as the United States of America
vaccination
a injection that protects a person from a disease
values
ideas or qualities that people feel are important, right, and good
vegetation
the plants that grow naturally in an area
veto
to refuse to sign a bill into law
warrant
a document that permits a police search in connection with a crime
work ethic
the belief in the value of work, demonstrated through commitment to job responsibilities
world history
history of all of the people and nations of Earth