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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
abolitionist
a person who wanted to do away with slavery
absolute monarchy
authoritarian government in which all authority is held by a king or queen.
acid rain
type of precipitation made acidic by air pollutants as a result of burning fossil fuels
Age of Exploration
the period during which European nations sponsored expeditions by sea to unknown parts of the world (1400s -1600s)
amendment
addition or change to a constitution
appropriate information
information that supports an idea, generalization, or conclusion
aristocracy
the highest social class, usually of noble birth; means "rule by the best"
arms race
the competition (1950s through the 1980s) between the United States and the Soviet Union to develop nuclear weapons
Articles of Confederation
the first U.S. constitution (1781-1789), which established a confederation of sovereign states
assumption
an idea, theory, or principle that a person believes to be true; something taken for granted and not explained
authoritarian
advocating obedience; not allowing personal liberty
authority
power to give orders, take action, and command obedience; party having this power
balance of trade
the diference between the total value of goods and services exported and the total value of goods and services imported
barter system
economic system in which goods and services are exchanged between two parties, rather than being paid for with money
bias
a strong opinion held by a person about a topic, often unfairly or without good reason
bicameral
consisting of two legislative bodies
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, listing the rights of individuals
boycott
a form of protest in which a group refuses to buy the products of a country or company until it makes some demanded change
breakwater
a wall built in a lake or sea to protect a shoreline from the force of waves
business cycle
the increasing and decreasing of business activity through four phases: expansion, peak, contraction, and trough
cabinet
a group of advisors to a chief executive
cause
what makes something happen or produces a result or consequence
centralized government
a type of government in which political power is held at one point
charter
a document that establishes an organization, such as a city or a corporation, and defines organization type and purpose
city-state
an early form of organization and government; town or city and land it controls
civil rights
the rights and freedoms democratic governments guarantee to all citizens
Civil War
a sectional conflict between the Northern ans Southern states (1861 to 1865)
civilization
an advanced and highly organized society; the culture, society, and way of life in a particular place during a particular time
clan
group of people with a common ancestor
climate
the general weather conditions of an area over a long period of time
Cold War
struggle for world power between the United States and the Soviet Union (1945 until the Soviet Union's collapse in 1989)
collective bargaining
a negotiation between employers and labor union leaders regarding working conditions, pay, and other issues
colonial
relating to a colony or area controlled and settled by people from another country
colonists
persons who leave their native country to settle in a colony
colonization
sending people to establish political, cultural, and economic control over another area
communism
an economic system in which the governemnt owns the means of production and plans the economy of the nation
Communist Bloc
a group of nations allied with the Soviet Union during the Cold War
compare
to look for similarities in things
compass rose
map tool indicating the four principal directions-North, South, East, West
concept
an idea or principle that applies to a variety of separate situations or circumstances
conclusion
a judgment or decision based on facts and details
conservation
the careful use and protection of natural resources
constitution
a plan that provides the basic organization and rules for a government
context
the circumstances or setting in which an event occurs
continents
seven large landmasses on Earth
contraction
a reduction in business activity
contrast
to look for differences in things
cost-push inflation
higher prices caused by a push for higher wages (wage-price spiral)
Crusades
expeditions from Europe to the Middle East (11th and 14th centuries) to impose Christian rule on Muslin areas
culture
the knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws, and customs of a society