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15 Cards in this Set

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Describe respiration
The exchange of O2 and CO2 between an organism and the environment
Describe pulmonary ventilation
Air moving into and out of the lungs
Differentiate between external and internal respiration.
External respiration is the exchange of gases in the pulmonary capillaries, where internal respiration is the exchange that takes place at the cells
Explain the mechanics of respiration.
By decreasing the air pressure inside the lungs with the use of the diaphragm and chest wall muscles, air is allowed to rush in. By increasing the air pressure inside the lungs with the use of the diaphragm and chest wall muscles, air is pushed out. Then the individual molecules of O2 and CO2 cross capillary membranes with the pressure gradient
Relate the partial pressures of gases in the blood and lungs to atmospheric gas pressures.
In the atmosphere, nitrogen is at 597 torr, oxygen at 159 torr, carbon dioxide at 0.3 torr, and water vapor at 3.7 torr. In the blood, nitrogen is at 569 torr, oxygen at 104 torr, carbon dioxide at 40 torr, and water vapor at 47 torr.
Describe pulmonary circulation.
Deoxygenated blood is pumped out of the heart by the right ventricle through the pulmonic valve into each lung via pulmonary arteries. It flows through smaller and smaller vessels until it reaches the capillaries that surround the alveoli and exchanges gases. Then it flows back towards the heart through the pulmonary veins until it reaches the left atrium.
Explain the process of exchange and transport of gases in the body.
O2 in the body is at a lesser pressure than in the environment, so O2 diffuses in. CO2 in the body is at a greater pressure than in the environment, so CO2 diffuses out.
Describe voluntary regulation of respiration.
Voluntary regulation of breathing is consciously controlling rate and volume of ventilations
Describe chemical regulation of respiration.
The chemical regulation centers are located in the medulla and the carotid and aortic bodies. These generally respond to levels of CO2 and pH in the blood. (high CO2+increased pH – increased ventilations, low CO2 + decreased pH – decreased ventilations.) But they also can respond to decreased O2 levels by increasing ventilatory effort
Describe nervous regulation of respiration.
Inspiratory centers spontaneously activate breathing, expiratory center activate during times of increased inspiratory center activity and increase force and volume of exhalations, the Hering–Breuer reflex limits expansion of the lungs to prevent damage, the pneumotaxic center exhibits an inhibitory action on the inspiratory center and helps to steady breathing, and the apnuestic center is constantly active at base rate breathing and prevents apnea
Discuss the assessment of medical or traumatic obstruction of the airway.
Assess the rate, regularity and effort and recognize airway problems by observation, auscultation, and other signs of respiratory distress (changes in pattern and inadequate ventilation)
Discuss the management of medical or traumatic obstruction of the airway.
Positioning, supplemental O2, rescue breathing, suction, mechanical adjuncts, and advanced airway procedures
Outline the causes for pulmonary aspiration.
In children: running with food or other objects in the mouth and forced feeding are the primary causes. In adults: dental or nasal surgery, unconsciousness, swallowing of poorly chewed food, and alcohol intoxication are the primary causes
Outline the effects of pulmonary aspiration.
Death, destruction of surfactant-producing alveolar cells, alveolar collapse and destruction, pulmonary capillary destruction, localized hypoventilation, systemic hypovolemia, burn-like injuries to lungs
Outline the preventive measures for pulmonary aspiration.
Control and maintain the airway and properly position the patient