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148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abesence of oxygen to the brain will cause damage or death within how many minutes
6-10 min
Gas that is necessary for energy production
O2
Waste product of the body's metabolism
Carbon Dioxide
The exchange of gas between a living organism between a living organism and its enviornment
Respiration
This extends from mouth and nose to the larynx
Upper Airway
This joins the upper and lower airway
Larynx
The upper airway includes
Oral Cavity, nasal cavity and pharynx
Cartilage that seperates the right and left nasal cavities
Septum
Sinus
Air cavity that conducts fluids from the eustachian tubes and tear ducts to and from nasophyarynx
These bines comprise the lateral and superior walls of the nasal cavity
Maxillay, frontal, nasal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones
Structures that connect with the nasal cavity are:
Sinuses, estachian tubes, and lacrimal
Eustachian Tube
A tube that connects the ear with the nasal cavity
the 4 pairs of sinuses are:
Maxillary sinus, frontal sinus, ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus
These help trap bacteria entering the nasal cavity
Sinuses
Tubular vessels that drain tears and debris from eyes into nasal cavity
Nasolacrimal ducts
Superior, Middle, and Inferior Turbinates function as :
Filters the air by depositing airborne particles on mucous membrane
The Cheeks, Hard and soft palates and the tongue form?
The Oral Cavity
U shaped hyoid bone is located
Beneath the chin
The only bine in the axial skeleton that does not articulate is known as :
The Hyoid bone
A muscular tube that extends vertically form the back of the soft palate to superior aspect of the esophagus is:
Pharynx
Function of the pharynx
Allows air to flow in and out of the respiratory tract and food and liquids to pass into digestive system
3 regions of the pharynx are:
nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and laryngeal pharynx (hypopharynx)
Uppermost region of oharynx, extends from the back of nasal opening to the plane of soft palate
Nasopharynx
Extends from the planes of the soft palate to the hyoid bone
Oropharynx
Lymphatic tissue in mouth and nost that filter bacteria
Andenoids
Extends posteriorly from the hyoid bone to the esophagus and anteriorly to the larynx
Laryangealpharynx
Cartilage that prevent food from entering the repiratory tract during swallowing:
Epiglottis
An imprtant landmark for Endotracheal Intubation is
Vallecula
A fold formed by base of the tongue and epiglottis
Vallecula
Complex structure that joins pharynx with the trachea
Larynx
Thyroid and Cricoid cartiage, glottic opening, vocal chords, artenoid cartlidge, pyriform fossae and cricothyroid membarane are all part of the :
Larynx
This cartilge forms the pyrimid shped attachment for the vocal chords and is a landmark for ETT
Arytenoid Cartlige
Located posterior to the Adams Apple, this houses the glottic opening
Throid Cartilage
Whit band of of cartilge that regulate the passage of air throught the larynx and produce voice by contraction of the laryngeal muscles
True Vocal Chords
This lies beneath thyroid cartlige and is considered first tracheal ring
Cricoid Cartlige
This connects the inferior boarder of the thyroid cartilge with superior aspect of the cricoid cartilge
Cricothyroid membrane
This extends from below larynx to the alveoli
Lower Airway
This is 10-12 cm that connects the larynx to 2 stem bronchi
Trachea
Tubes from the trachea to the lungs is called
Bronchi
Bronchioles contain what type of receptors?
Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptors
This occurs when beta 2 receptors are stimulated?
Relaxes the bronchial smooth muscle, increasing airwyas diameter (Bronchodialates)
When parasympathetic receptors are stimulated this occurs
The bronchial smooth muscle contracts, decreasing the airway diameter (bronchoconstriction)
Microscopic air sacs where most oxygen and carbon dioxide gas exchanges take place
Alveoli
Alveolar Collapse is known as:
Atelectasis
Parenchyma
Principle or essential parts of an organ
Membranous tissue that covers the lungs
Pleura
This part of the pleura envelopes the lungs and does not catain nerve fibers
Visceral Pleura
This part of the pluera lines the thoracic cavity and does contain nerve fibers
Parietal Pleura
The space between the Visceral and parietal Pluera
Pleural Space
Holds a small amount of fluid to reduce friction between pleural respirations
Pleural Space
Inflammation of the pluera, usually casing chest pain, particulary in cigarette smokers
Pleurisy
The exchange of gases between a living organism and its enviornment is known as
Respiratory
Type of respiration that occurs in the lungs when respiratory gases are exchanged between alveoli and red blood cells in pulmonary Capillaries
Pulmonary or external respiration
Type of respiration that occurs in the peripheral cappilaries. Exchange of gases between red blood celss and the various body tissues
Cellular or interanl respiration
The mechanical process that moves air onto and out of the lungs
Ventilation
This involves coodinated interaction with the repiratory system, CNS, and muscloskeletal system
Respiratory Cycle
The respiratory cycle begins when lungs have achieved what
Normal expiration and the pressure inside thoracic cavity eqauls atmospheric pressure
Inspiration is what type of process?
Active
Expiration is what type of process?
Passive
Cells take oxygen from red blood cells coming from the arterial system and give up CO2 to the returning venous blood in the ?
Capillaries
Pressure exerted by each component of a gas mixture
Partial Pressure
PA is
Aveolar Pressure
Pa is
Arterial Pressure
This transfers the gases between the lungs and the blood and between the blood and peripheral tissues
Diffusion
Oxygen diffuses into the blood plasma, where most of it combines with hemoglobin and is measured as ?
Oxygen saturation SPO2
Hemoglobon approaches 100% when PaO2 of dissolved oxygen reaches
90-100 torr
O2 content/O2 capacity x 100%=
Oxygen saturation
This molecule carries the vast majority of O2 (about 97%)
Hemoglobin molecule
Reduction in breathing rate and depth
Hypoventilation
Increase in breathing rate and depth
Hyperventilation
Pneumothorax
Accumulation of air or gas in the pleural Cavity
Hemothorax
Accumulation of blood or fluid containing blood in the plueral cavity
Pulmonary Embolism
Blot clot that travels to the pulmonary circulation and hinders oxygenation of the blood
Blood transports CO2 mainly in the form of
Bicarbonate
Excessive pressure of Carbon Dioxide in the blood
Hypercarbia
Respiratory Rate
Number of respirations per min
Main respiratory center lies in what part of the brainstem
Medulla
The medulla isconnected to the respiratory muscles praimarily via the ?
Vagus Nerve
Apneustic Center
Is responsible for to assume repiratory control to ensure continuation of respirations in the event the medulla fails
Pneumotaxic Center
Controls Expiration also located in PONS
Herin-Breuer Refelx is responsible for ?
Prevention of over expantion of lungs
Primary control of respiration center is?
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
Decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the blood
Hypoxemia
Mechanism that increases respiratory stimulation when PaO2 falls and inhibits respiratory stimulation when PaO2 Climbs
Hypoxic Drive
Normal Respiration rates in adults, children, and infants
Adults- 12 to 20
Children- 18 to 24
Infants- 40 to 60
Total amount of air contained in the lung at the end of amximal inspiration
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Total Lung Capacity in an adult is approx.
6 Liters
Tidal Volume (TV)
is the average volume of gas inhaled or exhaled in one respiratory cycle
Tidal Volume in an adult is approx.
500 mL (5-7cc/kg)
Dead Space Volume (VD)
The amount of gas in the tidal volume that rmains in the air passage way unavailable for gas exchange
Amount of gas in the tidal volume that reaches the alveoli for gas exchange
Alveolar Volume (Va)
The amount of gas moved in and out of respiratory tract in one min
Minute Volume
The amount of gas that reaches the alveoli for gas exchange in minute
Alveolar Minute Volume
The amount of air that can be maximally inhaled after a normal respiration
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume
The Amount of air that can be maximally exhaled after inspiration
Residual Volume
The Amount of moisture remaining in the lungs after maximal exhalation
The amount of air that can be maximally expired after maximum inspiration
Forced Expiratory Volume
An interference with air movementthrought the upper airway
Upper Airway Obstruction
This type of upper airway obstuction that emits high pitched noise known as stridor and may have a blueish appearance
Partial Upper Airway Obstruction
Most common cause of airway obstruction
The tongue
Most commonly aspirated material
Vomitus
The key to airway management in every patient is
Vigilance
Paradoxial Motion
Assymetrical Chest Wall movement that lessens respiratory efficiency
Flail Chest
defect in Chest wall that allows a segment to move freely, causing paradoxial chest wall movement
Anoxia
Absence or near absence of oxygen
Patients seated in a tripod position with repiratory difficulties may indicate the patient having?
COPD
How long can the brain function without O2
4-6 min
Foreceful exhalation of large volume of air from the lungs
Coughing
Sudden, forceful exhalation from the nose
Sneezing
Sudden inspiration caused by spasmotic contractionof the diaphram with spastic closure of glottis
Hiccoughing (Hiccups)
Slow deep, involuntary inspiration follwed by prolonged expiration
Sighing
Forceful expirationthat occurs against partially closed epiglottis
Grunting
Kussmals Respirations
Deep, Slow rapid gasping breathing
What type of respirations is commonly found in diabetic Ketoacidosis
Kussmals Respirations
Cheyne-Stoke Respirations
Progressivly deeper, faster breathing alternating gradually with shallow sloer breathing
Most common type of respirations found with a brain stem injury is ?
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
Biot's Respirations
irregular pattern of rate and depth with sudden periodic episodesof apnea
Respirations commonly found with Increses Intracranial Pressure
Biots respiration
Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation
Deep, Rapid Respirations,
Agonal Respirations
Shallow, Slow, or infrequent breathing,
Agonal respirations indicate what?
Brain Anoxia
High pitched sound heard oninhalation associated with laryngeal edema or constriction
Stridor
Wheezing
Musical, squeaking or whistling sound heard on inspiration and or exhalation associated with bronchial constriction
Bubbling sound heard on inspiration associated with fluid in the smaller bronchioles
Crackles
Course, rattling noise heard on inspiration associatedwith inflammation, mucus or fluid in the bronchioles
Rhonchi
Pulse Oximetry
measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the peripheral tissues
SpO2
O2 satuaration percentage- the saturation of arterial blood with O2
Capnography
Recording or Display of measurement of exhaled CO2 concentrations
Canometry
Measurement od expired CO2
Measurement of CO2 Concentration at the end of expiration
End-Tidal CO2
Partial Pressure of the End tidal CO2 in a mixed Gas soloution
PETCO2
Represents the partial pressure of CO2 in the Arterial Blood
PaCO2
Straight blades for ET are used mosr often in
Infants
ETT ranges in what legnths
12-32 cm
Stylet
platic covered wire used to bend the ETT
Magill Forcepts
Scissor-style clamps with circulat tips. Used to remove foreign bodies or redirectde ETT during nasotracheal Intubation
Is potentially lethal if you do ot recognize it immediatley
Esophageal Intubation
Indications of esphogeal intubation
Absence of chest rise, breath sounds, breath condensation in ETT, Cyanosis, Falling SpO2, Phonation, Gurgling sounds
Any tear in the lung parenchymea can cause this
Tension Pneumothorax
Tension Pnemothorax
Accumulation of gas or air in the pleural Cavity
Expanding of tension pneumothorax will casue damage to??
The other lung, heart and structures of the mediastinum
Indications of Tesion Pneumothorax
Poor or worsening complience, Diminished unilateral breath sounds, hypoxia with hypotension, distended neck veins
Giving medications to sedate and temprarily paralyze a patient and then performing orotracheal intubation is
Rapid Sequenc intubation
Depolarizing medication that causes temporary paralysis and used for Rapid Sequence Intubation
Succinylcholine
Dose onset and duration for succinylcholine
Dose: Adults 1.5mg/kg IV Bolus Pediatrics 2.0 mg/kg
Onset 60-90 sec
Duration 3-5 min
Contraindicatoins for succinylcholine
Penatrating eye injuries, Pts with burns > 8 hrs. Crush injusries, neurologic injuries > 1 week
2 medication used for sedation in Rapid Sequence Intubation
Succinylcholine and Vecuronium
Dose, onset, duration of Vecuronium
Paralyzing 0.15mg/kg IV bolus
Priming 0.01mg/kg IV Bolus