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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Explain what a drug is
A drug is any substance taken by mouth; injected into a muscle, blood, vessel, or cavity of the body; or applied topically to treat or prevent a disease or condition
Identify four types of drug names
Chemical, Generic, Trade, Official
Outline drug standards and legislation and the enforcement agencies pertinent to the paramedic profession
Sherley Amendment: prohibit fraudulent claims, Harrison Narcotic Act: control sale of narcotics (first use of term), Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act: requires testing and listing of ingredients, Durham-Humphrey Amendment: required prescriptions, Kefauver-Harris Amendment: required efficacy proved, Controlled Substances Act: classified substances according to abuse potential. DEA is the nation’s sole drug regulatory agency. FDA, FTC, Public Health Service are others involved
Describe the paramedic’s responsibilities in drug administration
Use correct precautions and techniques, Observe and document effects, Keep knowledge and skills current, Establish and maintain professional relationships, Carefully evaluate patients to identify indications and contraindications, Take HX with prescriptions, OTC’s, vitamins, alternative drugs, adverse reactions, Seek medical direction
Differentiate among the four types of allergic reactions to drugs
Type I (anaphylactic): hives, itching, sometimes severe CV and Resp. – Penicillins, cephalosporins, iodines / Type II (cytotoxic): hemolytic reactions and destruction of platelets-- guanidine, procainamide, hydrazaline / Type III (serum sickness): hives, joint pain, swollen lymph nodes, fever-- phenytoin, horse serum / Type IV (contact dermatitis): e.g., poison ivy rash-- latex, sunscreen
Discuss factors that influence drug absorption
Nature of cell membrane, blood flow to the site of administration, solubility, pH of drug environment, drug concentration, dosage form, route
Discuss factors that influence drug distribution
Tissue-binding, plasma protein binding, permeability of capillaries, barriers
Discuss routes of drug elimination
Kidneys, intestine, lungs, sweat and salivary, mammary
Describe how drugs react with receptors to produce their desired effects
Lock-and-key. The drug that best fits one receptor site best produces a specific response
List the variables that can influence drug interactions
Intestinal absorption, competition for plasma protein binding, biotransformation, action at the receptor site, renal excretion, alteration of electrolyte balance
Identify special considerations for administering pharmacological agents to pregnant patients
Any agent given to a pregnant woman can cross the placental barrier and cause untoward effects to the fetus
Identify special considerations for administering pharmacological agents to pediatric patients
Age: effects are unpredictable on infants. Absorption: lowered peripheral perfusion in infants, liquid medications absorbed quicker in children. Distribution: higher water concentration, reduced plasma protein binding ability. Biotransformation: slower liver metabolism in infants. Elimination: <1yr renal activity immature—slowing excretion.
Identify special considerations for administering pharmacological agents to older patients
Age: decline in functional capability. Absorption: changes in nutritional habits, greater consumption of OTC’s, changes in gastric emptying. Distribution: changes in body composition, reduced plasma protein binding potential due to reduction in serum albumin. Biotransformation: possible liver dysfunction. Elimination: renal activity slows due to loss of nephron functioning and reduced blood flow. Drug administration noncompliance due to forgetfulness, expense, disappearance of symptoms, errors, deliberate noncompliance.