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97 Cards in this Set

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Afferent Division
Nerve fibers that send impluses from the periphery to the central nervous system.
Anatomical Position
A position, standin erect with feet and palms facing toward the examiner.
Anterior
The front, or ventral, surface.
Capillaries
Tiny vessels that connect arterioles to venules.
Central Nervous System
The brain and Spinal cord.
Efferent
Nerve fibers that send impluses from the central nervous system to the periphery.
Homeostasis
A state of equilibrium in the body with respect to functions and composition of fluids and tissues.
Inferior
Toward the feet; below a point of reference in the antommical position.
Integumentary system
The largest organ system in the body, consisting of the skin and assessory structures.
Limbic system
The part of the brain involved with emotions and olfaction.
Lymphatic system
The network of vessels, ducts, nodes, valves, and organs involved in protecting and maintaining the internal fluid environment of the body
Organ
A structure made up of two or more kinds of tissues organized to perform a more complex functionthan any one tissue alone.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system usually involved in activating vegetative functions such as digestion, defecation, and urination
Peripheral Nervous System
A subdivision of the nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia
Plasma Membrane
The outer covering of a cell that contains the cellular cytoplasm; also known as the cell membrane.
Posterior
The back, or dorsal, surface.
Prone
The position in which the patient is lying on the stomach (face down).
Reticular activating system
A functional system in the brain essential for wakefulness, attention, concentration, and introspection.
Somatic Nervous System
The part of the nervous system composed of nerve fibers that send impulses from the central nervous system to the skeletal muscle.
Superior
Situated above or higher than a point of reference in the anatomical position.
Supine
The position in which the patient is lying on the back (face up)
System
Interconnected functions or organs in which a stimulus or an action in one area affects all other areas.
Epie
On top.
SA node
60-100 BPM
Good.
AV node
40-60 BPM
Taking over for SA node.
Purkinje Fibers
20-40 BPM
Your fucked, last line of defence.
Cricoid cartilage
Only full ring in the trachea.
Carina
Split in trachea in to the right and left bronchi.
Left bronchi
More acutely angled than the right.
7.35 to 7.45
Normal body Ph
Carbonic drive
Breathing based on levels of carbon in body.
Hypoxic drive
Breathing based on oxygen levels
Automaticity
Ability of heart to generate its own electricty.
What Ph stand for?
Potential of hydrogen.
Viseral Pleura
Covers organs
Parital
Covers inside of cavities
DAP
Dura mater
Arachnoid
Pia Mater
7 12 5 5 4
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx
Hypertrophy
Increase in cell size(with out an increase in the number of cells)
Hyperplasia
Excessive increase in the number cells
Metaplasia
A chage in into a form that is not normal for that cell.
Dysplasia
The develpoment of abnormal changes in mature cells. Often seen as precancerous.
Brain Stem
Medulla, Pons, Midbrain.
Medulla
Most inferior portion of the brain stem. Regulates heart rate, blood vessels, breathing, swallowing vomiting, coughing,and sneesing.
Four tissue types
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous.
Epithelial tissue
Covers surfaces of forms structures(e.g. glands)
Skin
Connective
Most abundant type in body.
Fat, Tendons, Cartilage, Bone, Blood, bone marrow.
Hypothalamus
Regulation of body temerature, water balance, sleep-cycle control, appetite, sexual arousal.
Isotonic dehydration
Loss of sodium and water in equal amounts.
Hypernatremic dehydration
Loss of more water than sodium.
Hyponatremic dehydration
Loss of more sodium than water.
Normal body % of water
Male=60%
Female=50%
Infant=70%
Acidosis
A condition marked by high concentration of hydrogen ions. (pH below 7.35)
Active transport
A carrier mediated process that can move substances against a concentration gradient.
Aerobic
Of or pertaining to the presence of air or oxygen.
Afterload
The total resistance against which blood must be pumped.
Alkalosis
A condition marked by a low concentration of hydrogen ions. (pH above 7.45)
Allergens
Substances that can produce hypersensitivity reactions in the body.
Anaerobic
of or pertaining to the absence of oxygen.
anion
An ion with a negative charge.
Atrophy
Decreace in the size of a cell.
Cardiac output
The volume of bloob pumped each minute by the ventricle.
cation
An ion with a positive charge.
Diffusion
A process where a higher concentration moves to a lower concentration and vise versa.
Edema
The accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces.
Hyperkalemia
High potassium
Hypercalcemia
High calcium
Hypermagnesemia
High magnesium
Sypernatremic
High sodium
Hypertonic
A solution that causes cells to shrink.
Hypokalemia
Low potassium
Hypomagnesemia
Low magnesium
Hyponatremic
Low sodium.
Hypoperfusion
Shock.
Hypotonic
A solution that causes a cell to swell.
Interstitial fluid
Fluid that occupies the space outside the blood vessels and/or outside the cells of an organ or tissue.
Intracellular fluid
The fluid found in all body cells.
Ischemia
A state of insufficient perfusion of oxygenated blood to a body organ or part.
Isotonic
A solution that causes cells to neither shrink nor swell.
Lactic Acidosis
Caused by accumulation of lactic acid in the blood, resulting in lower pH.
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
The progressive failure of two or more organ systems.
Preload
The amount of blood returning to the ventricle.
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
Stores enegry in muscles.
Hydrogen ions
More hydrogen the lower the pH.
Electrolytes
Potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium
Acid/base balance
For a body to function this balance must be kept in a narrow range.
Bile
A bitter, yellow-green secretion of the liver that is stored in the gallbladder.
Buffer systems
Respitory-lungs
Renal-liver
Bicarbanate
Sternum
Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid process
Pericardium
The membrane that surrounds the heart.
Larynx
The voice box, inferior to the pharynx.
Pancreas
In the epigastric region
Secreates digestive enzymes, insulinand glucagon.
Spleen
Located in upper part of abdominal cavitybetween stomach and diaphragm, stores red blood calls.
Ligaments
Connects bone to bone.
Tendons
Connects muscle to bone.
Cranial nerve 1
Olfactory nerve,
nose to brain
smell
Cranial nerve 10
Vagus nerve
From throat,larynx, and abdominal cavity.
heart beat, swallowing, speach