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365 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cylindrical organelles that
function in cell division
Centrioles
Organelle that produces, transports, and stores proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
The organelle that packages things that are going to be sent out of the cell and transports them to the cell membrane
Gogli Apparatus
(Gogli Complex &
Gogli Body)
A type of enzyme that breaks down destructive hydrogen peroxide into harmless water and oxygen
Catalases
Organelles that contain catalases
Peroxisomes
Organelles that produce ATP for cells
Mitochondria
Key features of mitochondria
Double-membraned with lots of crests and dips in the inner membrane (increasing surface area)
Part of a cell containing chromosomes (and thus DNA)
Nucleus
Organelle that produces ribosomes
Nucleolus
Abbreviation for ribosomes
rRNA
Intracellular circulation
Cytoplasmic streaming
Organelles containing digestive enzymes
Lysosomes
Enzymes that digest waste and ingested material
Hydrolytic enzymes
Sites of protein synthesis in a cell
Ribosomes
What centrioles are made of
Microtubules
Empty space in a cell surrounded by a membrane, sometimes serving as storage
Vacuoles
What an atom contains
Nucleus (with a neutron and proton)
plus electrons
Element involved in pH measurements
Hydrogen
What pH evaluates
Measures the ratio of H+s to OH-s
Something that releases hydrogen ions is this...
Acidic, with a pH of 0-6
Something that releases OH ions is this...
Alkaline, with a pH of 8-14
Maximum number of bonds for any given atom
Four bonds
Types of bonds allowed in a molecular formula
Single, double, and triple bonds
What atoms share when bonded
Electrons -- two per single bond, four per double bond, and six per triple bond
Type of bond that is considered weak on its own
Hydrogen bond
A hydrogen atom can have only one of this type of bond
Covalent bond
Atoms with which hydrogen often forms hydrogen bonds
Oxygen and Nitrogen
Surface tension is produced by the interaction of this
Numerous hydrogen bonds
A covalent bond is...
Equal sharing of electrons between atoms
What constitutes an ionic bond?
Electrons that are not equally shared between atoms, where an electron is closer to one of the atoms
An atom that carries either a positive or negative charge
An ion
Definition of "organic"
Contains carbon
Elements that make up sugars
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in a saccharide
2:1 ratio
Glucose and fructose are examples of these
Monosaccharides
Lactose, sucrose, and maltose are examples of these
Disaccharides
Joining two smaller compounds by removing water
Dehydration synthesis
Starches, glycogen, and cellulose are examples of these
Polysaccharides
Adding a water molecule to break a molecular bond
Hydrolysis
What carbohydrates are made of
Carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
Fats, oils, waxes, and cholesterol are examples of these
Lipids
Difference between sugars and lipids, in terms of structure
Both are made of carbons, oxygens, and hydrogens, but the H to O ratio for lipids is much higher than sugars
A triglyceride is made of what?
Three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule
Identify:
A - What this structure represents
B - The green area
C - The red area
A - A triglyceride
B - Glycerol
C - Three fatty acids
What does this structure represent?
An amino acid
Name the components of an amino acid
- The amino group NH(2)
- The carboxyl group, COOH
- The R group (the amino acid's sidechain)
Glycine has the ________ sidechain
Simplest sidechain
Lysine has a _______ sidechain
A complex sidechain
These are the building blocks of proteins
Amino acids
A dipeptide is...
Two amino acids joined together
The bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another is called this
The peptide bond
What is the job of an enzyme?
It speeds up the rate of reactions within a cell - an organic catalyst
Vitamins act as _______
Coenzymes (aka 'cofactors') that help enzymes do their job
An enzyme is a type of ________
Protein
Enzymes have active sites where these can "dock"
Reactants or substrates
When reactants A and B interact with an enzyme, what is the result?
Product C and the original enzyme
The single structure of an enzyme with its substrates is called __________
The enzyme-substrate complex
What two circumstances can break/disrupt enzyme bonds?
High temperatures and high or low pH
What makes an enzyme sluggish?
Low temperature
A saturated enzyme means what?
There are more substrates than enzymes to service them
The semipermanent disruption of bonds in a molecule (causing enzymes and other proteins to lose their shape)
Denaturation
A lipid bilayer and proteins make up what?
The fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane
What two things are required for diffusion to occur in a cell?
1. A membrane that is permeable to the diffusing substance
2. An area outside the cell of lower concentration (of the substance that is being transported)
The difference in concentration of a substance across an area is called what?
Concentration gradient
The molecule that acts as a source of energy inside a cell
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Name the three methods of transport for a cell
1. Diffusion
2. Facilitated transport
3. Active transport
Active transport requires what?
Energy, in the form of ATP
The diffusion of water is called what?
Osmosis
Transport of a substance from INSIDE a cell to OUTSIDE, via a membrane-bound pocket
Endocytosis
Transport of a substance from OUTSIDE a cell to INSIDE, via a membrane-bound pocket
Exocytosis
A form of "cell eating" for endocytosis of large particles
Phagocytosis
A form of "cell drinking" for endocytosis of liquid particles
Pinocytosis
Something that gets dissolved in a solution
Solute
A liquid that permits a solute to exist within it
Solvent
Functions of the Gogli Apparatus
1. Packages things, like proteins, to be sent outside the cell
2. Transports these to the cell membrane to be excreted
Type of endoplasmic reticulum where protein synthesis occurs
Rough ER
A single-celled organism
Protozoan
What a protozoan's contractile vacuoles do
Expel extra water from the organism to maintain a water balance with its environment
Long, thin fibers that give a cell shape and motility
Microfilaments
A cytoskeleton is made of what?
Microfilaments and microtubules
Microfilaments and microtubules are made of what?
Different kinds of proteins
A type of cell that has a membrane around the nucleaus
Eukaryote
Cells that do not have a membrane around their nuclei
Prokaryotes
A long, whip-like structure of microtubules that enables a cell to move
Flagellum
Short, hair-like structures of microtubules that help cells move through oar-like motions
Cilia
Key components missing from prokaryote cells
- Arranged chromosomes
- Mitochondria
- ER
- Gogli apparatus
What prokaryote cells have that eukaryotes don't
A cell wall
Bacteria are a type of these
Prokaryotes
Round, pea-shaped bacteria
Cocci
Rod-shaped bacteria
Bacilli
Corkscrew-shaped bacteria
Spirilla
Components of a virus
A nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid
Also a piece of RNA or DNA to inject into a human cell
What antibiotics do to bacteria
They disable the cell wall
A small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances
Vesicle
The biochemical process where glucose is broken down
Glycolysis
What a glucose molecule breaks down into...
Pyruvic acid
How a cell generates ATP
Through glycolysis
After glycosis, where does the cell send the pyruvates?
To the mitochondria for processing
What does the mitochondria do with pyruvic acid?
Converts it to acetyl CoA molecules and puts it through the Krebs cycle
What is required for the Krebs cycle?
A oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA molecule that enter as a citrate
Another term for the Krebs cycle
Citric acid cycle
What does the Krebs cycle do?
- pulls hydrogens and electrons off the molecules and uses them to create NAD+ and FAD
- generates ATP
What does the mitochondria need FADH₂ and NADH for?
To make ATP
When a molecule loses an electron, it is called _______
Oxidation
When a molecule gains an electron, it is called _______
Reduction
NADH and FADH₂ are what?
A reduced forms of NAD+ and FAD. They are coenzymes that take on electrons
Where is the electron transport chain located?
On the inner mitochondrial membrane
An organic compound that consists of three joined structures: a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
Nucleotide
A nucleotide used to drive active transport and fuel chemical reactions such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
The process in eukaryotes that moves protons down a concentration gradient to produce ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation
The breakdown of glucose and its successor molecules in the presence of oxygen
Aerobic respiration
Average aerobic respiration yield of ATP, per glucose molecule
34-36 ATP molecules
Organisms that conduct aerobic respiration
Aerobes
Average anaerobic respiration yield of ATP, per glucose molecule
2 ATP molecules
Organisms that conduct anaerobic respiration
Anaerobes
Products of yeast and bacteria fermentation
Ethanol and carbon dioxide
Products of muscle cell fermentation
Lactic acid
Aerobic process that transports carrier molecules (ultimately) to an oxygen molecule
Electron transport chain
Innermost portion of the mitochondria
Matrix
An organism that produces its own food
Autotroph
An organism that gets food from consuming something else
Heterotroph
A metal ion activator that is bound to an enzyme and is required for catalysis
Inorganic cofactor
Another name for an organic, non-protein part of an enzyme
Cofactor or coenzyme
An element's atomic number indicates what?
The number of protons in the nucleus
What an atom is called when it contains the same number of protons and electrons
Uncharged
The three-dimensional space that electrons travel through is called...
Electron cloud,
electron shell, or
orbital
The outermost occupied energy level of an element
Valence shell
What makes an atom more stable?
When all its electrons are paired
What makes an atom the most stable?
When the valence shell is full
Two or more atoms held together by a shared electron is called _________
A molecule
What is formed when two or more different atoms bind together chemically to form a unique substance
A compound
Molecules with regions of partial charge are called...
Polar molecules
The breakdown of a compound into its components
Decomposition reaction
When one compound breaks into a new compound and a free reactant
Replacement reaction
Reactions that require energy
Endothermic reactions
Reactions that release energy
Exothermic reactions
Certain chemicals dissociate in water because water molecules are _______
Polar
A chemical that accepts protons when dissolved in water
A base
A chemical that donates protons when dissolved in water
An acid
What is produced when an acidic solution is neutralized in a basic solution?
Salt and water
Water is unique because it _______ when solidifying in response to cold
Expands
Frozen water is less dense than liquid because of its _________
Crystalline structure
Water in an environment moderates high temperatures because of its _____________
High specific heat
The name "carbohydrate" stands for what?
Carbon + water, which also illustrates the 2:1 ratio of Hydrogen to Oxygen in this molecule
Plants store energy by synthesizing _________
Starches
A polysaccharide that many animals use for short-term energy storage (especially in muscle and liver tissue)
Glycogen
The lipids in cell membranes
Phospholipids
Some lipids serve as ________ or ________
Vitamins or hormones
Lipids used for long-term storage
Fats
Large unbranched chains of amino acids
Proteins
Two groups of nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Suffix for enzymes
-ase
DNA and RNA are composed of chains of these
Nucleotides
The nitrogen base in DNA indicated by the letter A
Adenine
The nitrogen base in DNA indicated by the letter C
Cytosine
The nitrogen base in DNA indicated by the letter G
Guanine
The nitrogen base in DNA indicated by the letter T
Thyamine
What Watson & Crick discovered and modeled in the 1950s
Double-helix structure of DNA
A sugar (pentose) attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
Nucleotide composition
The scientist who discovered one celled bacteria ("animalcules")
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
When the light microscope was invented
Mid-1600s
First scientist to use the term "cells"
Robert Hooke
Scientists who developed cell theory
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
First principle of cell theory
All living things are made up of one or more cells
Second principle of cell theory
Cells are the basic unit of life
Third principle of cell theory
All cells come from pre-existing cells
Projections of a cell extending from the membrane, containing digestive enzymes
Microvilli
Where free ribosomes are found
Cytoplasm
Task of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
To deliver lipids and proteins to certain areas within the cytoplasm
Folds of the internal mitochondrian membrane
Cristae
The speculation that mitochondria evolved from primitive bacteria that lived symbiotically with eukaryotic cells more than 2 billion years ago
Endosymbiont hypothesis
Points at which the double nuclear membrane fuses together, forming a passageway
Nuclear pores
What facilitated diffusion requires
Specialized proteins
When the water concentration is equal inside and outside a cell
Isomotic or isotonic
All types of energy transformation processes that occur as chemicals are broken apart or synthesized within a cell
Cellular metabolism
Process whereby cells build molecules and store energy in the form of chemical bonds
Anabolism
Breaking down molecules and releasing stored energy
Cotabolism
The part of the chloroplast that contains chlorophyll
Grana
First phase of photosynthesis
Light reaction (photolysis or noncyclic photophosphorylation)
Second phase of photosynthesis
Dark reaction (CO₂ fixation)
Sum total of genetic info
Genome
A series of bases on a DNA strand that together code for a polypeptide
Gene
The function of a protein or group of proteins
Trait
Code proteins that form organs and structural characteristics
Structural genes
Code proteins that determine functional or physiological events (e.g. growth), regulating when other genes start or stop encoding proteins
Regulatory genes
The transfer of genetic material from one bacterial cell to another
Transduction
A virus that targets bacteria
Bacteriophage
The process of bacteria absorbing and incorporating pieces of DNA from their environment
Transformation
Long chains of subunits that make up chromosomes
Nucleosomes
Small proteins at the core of a nucleosome
Histones
DNA wrapped around histone proteins
Chromatin
Pairs of chromosomes of similar size and shape, but not necessarily identical
Homologs
Different forms of corresponding genes
Alleles
DNA-cutting enzymes found in bacteria and harvested from them for use
Restriction Enzymes (Endonucleases)
What restriction enzymes are usually named for
The host of origin
Process by which a cell distributes its duplicated chromosomes to two daughter cells
Mitosis
The three phases of the interphase cell cycle
G₁ phase
S phase
G₂ phase
Cell cycle marked by a high rate of metabolism and protein synthesis, including the most cell growth and organelle production
G₁ phase
The cycle where a cell prepares for division by replicating the DNA and proteins necessary to form a new set of chromosomes
S Phase
Cell cycle where more proteins are produced for cell division and the centrioles are replicated
G₂ phase
Four phases of mitosis
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telephase
Asexual cell reproduction
Mitosis
Process of producing four daughter cells, each with a single, unduplicated set of chromosomes
Meiosis
Where meiosis occurs
Reproductive organs
A cell containing half the chromosomes of the parent
Haploid
Parent cell of a haploid, containing a normal set of paired chromosomes
Diploid
Another name for the haploid cells produced by meiosis
Gametes
Name for a cell that indicates the number of DNA copies present
Ploidy
Hydrogen binding between water molecules is called ______
Cohesion
Base pair rules
A - T
G - C
How are DNA base pairs linked?
Through hydrogen bonds
Top three causes of DNA mutation
1. Chemicals
2. Radiation
3. Viruses
Result of DNA replication
Two double-stranded DNA molecules, with the original strands divided between the two
Name for DNA replication where the result is two double DNA strands with half old and half new material
Semiconservative Replication
3 steps of protein synthesis
1. Transcription
2. RNA processing
3. Translation
Products of DNA transcription
mRNA (messenger RNA)
tRNA (transfer RNA)
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
Process that "unzips" a portion of DNA, reads a gene for encoding a particular protein, and replicates it.
Transcription
Process where the non-coding sequence on a strand of mRNA is removed
Post-transcriptional processing
Three bases in a DNA or RNA sequence which specify a single amino acid
Codon
The process of turning RNA into a protein
Translation
A chain of about 80 nucleotides and three anticodon that creates a link between the language of nucleotides and that of amino acids
tRNA (Transfer RNA)
Unattached base nucleotides
Anti-codon
Each strand of tRNA has one of these attached to it
A specific amino acid
Where translation occurs in a cell
At the ribosomes
The process of checking for errors in newly replicated DNA
Proofreading
This nucleotide is substituted for thymine in RNA
Uracil (U)
How many strands does RNA have?
One
The strand of DNA that directly encodes a protein
Sense strand
The complementary strand to a coding strand of DNA
Antisense strand
What determines the codon that a strand of tRNA reads from a strand of mRNA?
The amino acid accompanying the tRNA -- because it bonds to its matching codon
How the ends of a DNA strand are indicated
3' (three prime) and 5' (five prime)
A DNA code error that does not affect the amino acid sequence coding
Silent mutation
Deletion or insertion errors in DNA coding (which cause dramatic changes in the amino acid sequences of proteins)
Frameshift mutations
The enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix for replication
Helicase
What is the purpose of tRNA?
To bring amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis
Total number of human chromosomes in human cells
23 pairs
Attraction of unlike substances
Adhesion
The ability of a substance to wick up another substance into it
Capillary action
Large, organic molecules
Macromolecules
A macromolecule composed of repeating structural units, connected by covalent chemical bonds
Polymer
A single molecular unit
Monomer
Similar clusters of atoms in molecules
Functional Groups
When two sugar molecules are joined by losing a water molecule
Glycosidic linkage
Union of a cofactor and an enzyme
Holoenzyme
Water and dissolved substances, such as proteins and nutrients, found in a cell's cytoplasm
Cytosol
Aerobic respiration is carried out by this organelle
Mitochondria
Products of photophosphorylation
ATP and energy-rich NADPH
Another name for the "dark reaction" of photosynthesis
Calvin-Benson Cycle
The process of taking CO₂ from the atmosphere and the energy in ATP and NADPH to create a glucose module.
Calvin-Benson Cycle, aka CO₃ cycle or "dark reaction"
Examples of organic polymers
Polysaccharides
Proteins
DNA
The final process of animal cell division where the cell is pinched into two cells with identical chromosomes and their own nuclei
Cytokinesis
The isolation and line-up of an individual's chromosomal pairs
Karyotype
One strand of a double-stranded chromosome
Chromatid
Each strand of the same double-stranded chromosome
Sister chromatid
Where two chromatids on a double-stranded chromosome attach
centromere
Product of meiosis
Haploid cells
Genetic variation is introduced by this process, when one or more sections of chromatid (from one chromosome) exchange with corresponding sections of chromatid from its homologous chromosome during meiosis
Crossing over
The process of making enzymes and other proteins from DNA
Protein Synthesis
Natural continuous read order of a DNA strand
3' --> 5'
Short segments of complementary DNA that polymerase reads when assembling the 5' --> 3' strand
Okazaki segments
Enzymes that break and re-join the double helix during replication, preventing the formation of knots
Topoisomerases
Each leading strand and Okazaki strand is initiated with this
RNA Primase
The Y-shaped junction that forms as DNA is unwound for replication
Replication fork
Enzyme that unwinds the DNA during replication
Helicase
Enzyme that reads and assembles the new strand in DNA replication
DNA polymerase
Because the 5' --> 3' oriented strand takes longer to duplicate during replication, it is called the ____________
Lagging strand
Process of adding DNA nucleotides to the complementary strands during replication
Elongation
When an insertion error results in the subsequent nucleotides being shifted one position over
Frameshift mutation
Radiation or chemicals that cause mutations
Mutagens
Mutagens that activate uncontrolled cell growth
Carcinogens
________ are the end products of metabolic processes regulated by enzymes
Traits
Replication cycles of viruses
Lytic
Lysogenic
Viruses are organized by ______
The type of nucleic acid they contain (DNA or RNA)
Some viruses directly use their RNA to make what?
mRNA
A minuscule cell parasite that, incapable of living independently, penetrates a cell and takes control of the cell’s machinery to reproduce itself (later contaminating other cells)
Virus
These use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to make a DNA compliment of their RNA, to incorporate into host DNA
Retrovirus
How bacteria reproduce
Binary Fission
Process of binary fission
The chromosome replicates and the cell wall divides (there is no nucleus to divide)
Another name for the singular, circular DNA molecule that bacteria contain
Naked chromosome (lacking the normal histones and proteins of a normal chromosome)
The three main mechanisms by which bacteria acquire new DNA
Conjugation
Transduction
Transformation
The process by which bacteria pick up DNA from their environment, often from the remnants of DNA from dead bacterial cells
Transformation
The transfer of genetic material between bacteria through cell-to-cell contact
Conjugation
The exchange of DNA between bacteria using bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) as an intermediate
Transduction
This is used as a template for translation, to create a protein
mRNA
Region of the DNA to which RNA polymerase binds -- a site which includes the initiation site
Promoter
The stretch of DNA transcribed into RNA for a specific protein
Transcription unit, consisting of one gene in eurkaryotes
In transcription, what enzyme adds the bases to the growing RNA molecule?
RNA polymerase
In what direction does the RNA molecule elongate?
5' to 3' direction
Where is the promoter located on DNA?
About 100 nucleotides before the initiation site
The promoter usually contains this sequence of DNA about 25 nucleotides "upstream" from the initiation site
TATA box, rich in thymine and adenine bases
Why do transcription factors need to bind to the TATA box in the DNA promoter?
Because RNA doesn't recognize the TATA box on its own, but it can recognize this complex
What signals RNA polymerase to stop transcribing and release the RNA molecule?
Termination sequence in the DNA
A DNA or RNA segment that doesn't contain information for protein synthesis
Intron
A DNA or RNA segment that contains information for protein synthesis
Exon
The process of removing introns from RNA and sticking the exons back together
Splicing
During processing, ______ is added to the 5' end of RNA, and ______ is added to the 3' end, to protect the resulting mRNA strand
GTP cap
Poly-A tail
RNA transcription takes place in a cell's _______, while translation (protein synthesis) takes place in the cell's _______.
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
How many nucleotides provide the code to create a single amino acid?
Three (a triplet code called a codon)
Usually, more than one codon can code for the same amino acid -- why is this good?
It protects the cell from mutations that might otherwise make it impossible to code a given amino acid
First scientists to work on cracking the RNA code for amino acids
Nirenberg and Matthei
If 61 of the possible 64 codons all code for a single amino acid, what do the last three serve as?
Stop codons - signaling the end of translation
What amino acid does the start codon of RNA also code for?
Methionine (AUG)
The sequence of mRNA codons being translated, relative to the starting point
Reading frame
What is needed for translation
mRNA - containing the codons
tRNA - matches a specific amino acid
tRNA carries _______ at its 3' end
An amino acid
The enzyme that helps amino acids attach to tRNA
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (specific to the amino acid)
The 5' end of tRNA has what?
An anti-codon that helps it attach to the complementary codon on mRNA, serving as an adapter between the amino acid and the mRNA
Composition of ribosomes
rRNA and several proteins
What does the smaller subunit of a ribosome do in translation?
Has a binding site for the mRNA
What does the larger subunit of a ribosome do in translation?
Has two binding sites for two tRNA molecules - the P-site and A-Site, where the P-site holds the tRNA with the growing polypeptide
What are the two kinds of ribosomes?
Free (floating in the cytoplasm) and bound (attached to make the rough ER)
A collection of ribosomes translating the same mRNA strand
Polyribosome
An amino acid sequence on a polypeptide that targets the polypeptide to its final destination
Signal sequence
What is the most notable difference between viruses and bacteria?
Bacteria is a single-celled organism; viruses do not have cells
The bacteriophage life cycle that results in the death of the host cell
Lytic cycle
The bacteriophage life cycle that results in the replication of the viral genome without harming the host
Lysogenic cycle
Sometimes called "junk DNA", this highly condensed chromatin occupies about 10-25% of a eukaryotic genome
Heterochromatin - chromatin not used to create proteins
What is heterochromatin important for?
Proper chromosome condensation and movement during cell division
Most genes are found in this chromatin which is only condensed during cell division
Euchromatin
The function of centromeres on chromatids
Provide handles for the long fibers to use when pulling the chromatin apart
Ends of a chromosome
Telomeres
What three factors affect whether a cell continues from G₁ to the S phase?
Availability of nutrients
Density of nearby cells
Growth factors
What does S phase stand for?
DNA Synthesis
What does the G in G₁ and G₂ phase stand for?
Gap
What does M phase consist of?
Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Inside the centromere of a pair of sister chromatids is a ______ that functions as an attachment site for the mitotic spindle
kinetocore
During mitosis, what is responsible for the precise distribution of chromosomes to the daughter cells?
The mitotic spindle, an array of microtubules
In this mitosis phase:
Chromatin condenses into chromosomes
The nucleolus disappears
Centrosomes migrate and synthesis spindle fibers
Nuclear envelope disappears
Spindle fibers attach to sister chromatids
Nonkinetochore microtubules grow toward the center of the cell
Prophase
In this mitosis phase, chromosomes line up at the midpoint of the cell and the sister chromatids separate
Metaphase
This imaginary plane cuts through the nucleus at the exact midpoint of the cell, where it will divide
The metaphase plate
In this mitosis phase, poles move apart, lengthening the cell as spindle fibers pull sister chromatids away from each other, toward opposite poles
Anaphase
In this phase of mitosis:
The nuclear envelops form
Nucleoli reappear
The spindle apparatus disassembles
Telophase
How does plant cell cytokinesis differ from that of animal cells?
In plants, a double membrane called the cell plate forms and a new cell wall is formed between the two membranes of that plate
In which phase do cells spend most their time?
Interphase
Four types of asexual reproduction
Parthenogenesis
Binary fission
Budding
Fragmentation with regeneration
In this form of reproduction, a new organism develops as an outgrowth of the body of the parent
Budding
In this form of reproduction, the body of the parent breaks into parts that reform whole organisms
Fragmentation with regeneration
What are the names for the primary two phases of meiosis?
Meiosis I and Meiosis II -- two rounds of cell division
The pairing of homologous chromosomes
Synapsis
X-shaped figures where two chromatids have exchanged (crossed over) and are visible by light microscope in meiosis I
Chiasmata
How does meiosis prophase I differ from the prophase stage of mitosis?
Synapsis occurs, as well as crossing over among sister chromatids
How does meoisis metaphase I differ from metaphase in mitosis?
Chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate in pairs and each chromosome pair connects to only one pole
Why is the random alignment of chromosome pairs important in meiosis metaphase I?
It ensures independent assortment (random distribution of maternal and paternal members of each pair to the daughter cells)
The rest period between meiosis telophase I and prophase II
Interkinesis or Interphase II
What is the purpose of meiosis II?
To separate the sister chromatids in the daughter cells (converting two diploid to four haploid cells)
What is the difference between meiosis II and mitosis?
The end result - four haploid cells vs. two diploid cells
Given that humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, how many different gametes can one individual create?
8.4 million
How many cross over events typically occur in a single human chromosome?
Two or three
The formation of new combinations of genes by crossing over
Recombination
Small pieces of DNA that may be present in the cytoplasm of a prokaryote
Plasmids
What is the cell wall of eubacteria made of?
Peptidoglycan
Two categories of eubacteria determined with gram staining
Gram-positive (cells that retained the violet dye)
Gram-negative (cells that did not retain the dye)
What does the capsule of a prokaryote do?
Helps the prokaryote stick to surfaces and each other
Two nutritional categories of prokaryotes
Autotrophs build from CO2
Heterotrophs build materials from organic compounds
How are prokaryotes categorized by the energy they use?
Phototrophs - get their energy from sunlight
Chemotrophs - get their energy from chemicals in the environment
What kind of molecule is this?
Carbohydrate (cellulose)
This organelle is responsible for the synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates and calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What is unique about unsaturated fats, as opposed to saturated fats?
They have a kink or bend at the position of the double bond, so the molecules do not pack together as easily
A method used in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate DNA or RNA molecules by size
Agarose gel electrophoresis
This reaction allows pieces of DNA to be readily and rapidly copied, or amplified
PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
What is an independent variable?
The variable that is changed by the scientist
What is released by organisms in the process of making glucose and other organic molecules that help to power the metabolisms
Heat
These macromolecules have a three-dimensional structure
Proteins
A protein's primary structure describes this
The amino acid sequence of the peptide chains
The 3-D shape that results from hydrogen bonding between the amino and carboxyl groups of adjacent amino acids makes up this
A protein's secondary structure