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71 Cards in this Set

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Cardiovascular drugs ase used to treat a variety of conditions. Name (5)
1)congestive heart failure (CHF)
2)angina pectoris
3)arrhythmias
4)hypertension
5)hyperlipidemia
What occurs when the heart muscle is weakened and unable to adequately pump blood?
congestive heart failure (CHF)
Name a group of chemically related drugs prescribed for congestive heart failure (CHF)?
cardic glycosides
In ancient times, cardiac glycosides were extracted from dried ___ ___. Today these drugs are extracted and purified synthetically.
foxglove plants (digitalis lanata)
What term refers collectively to all of the cardiac glycosides?
digitalis
digitoxin
cardiac glycoside used to treat CHF
digoxin
(Lanoxin) most commonly prescribed cardiac glycoside to treat CHF
What is an adverse effect of using cardiac glycosides to treat CHF?
Digitalis toxicity --nearly 1/3 of patients taking cardiac glycoside develop symptoms of digitalis toxicity.
To prevent digitalis toxicity, physicians order what test to determine the level of digitalis in the blood?
blood tests
dig levels
the level of digitalis in the blood
Symptoms of digitalis toxicity can be treated how? Name (3)
1)decreasing the dosage of the cardiac glycoside
2)changing the dosage of the cardiac glycoside to a less frequent schedule
3)in severe cases, administering a drug such as digoxin immune fab, that inactivates the cardic glycoside in the bloodstream.
digoxin immune fab
a drug used to inactivate the cardiac glycoside in the bloodstream (Digitalis toxicity)
ACE inhibitors do what? Name (3)
1)decrease blood pressure
2)decrease pulmonary vascular and peripheral resistance
3)decrease heart size
captopril
(Capoten) ACE inhibitor to treat CHF
enalapril
(Vasotec) ACE inhibitor to treat CHF
lisinopril
(Prinivil,Zestril) ACE inhibitor to treat CHF
quinapril
(Accupril) ACE inhibitor to treat CHF
The pain of ___ ___ occurs when cells of the myocardium receive insufficient oxygenated blood to meet their needs.
angina pectoris
Name 3 drugs used to treat angina pectoris.
1)nitrates
2)beta blockers
3)calcium channel blockers
The most frequently prescribed nitrate used to treat angina pectoris is?
nitroglycerin
Name (7) ways nitrates, including nitroglycerin can be administered?
1)sublinguinally (SL)
2)sulinguinally as a tablet p.o.
3)transmucosally between the cheek and gum p.o.
4)orally as a sustained-release capsule or tablet p.o.
5)transdermally as a patch- PATCH
6)topically as an ointment- TOPICAL
7)intravenously- I.V.
Nitro-Bid
nitratees used to treat angina
Nitro-Dur
nitrates used to treat angina
Nitrostat
nitrates used to treat angina
Transderm-Nitro patch
nitrates used to treat angina
Beta blockers do what? Name (3)
1)decrease the heart rate
2)which in turn decreases the need of the myocardium for oxygen
3)and then decreases angina pain
atenolol
(Tenormin) beta blocker for angina pectoris
Lopressor
beta blocker for angina pectoris
Inderal
beta blocker for angina pectoris
for patients who have had a myocardial infarction (MI), the beta blocker ___ is the most commonly prescribed to prevent a second heart attack.
Inderal
What may be used in conjunction with nitrates and beta blockers to treat angina?
Calcium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers do what?
relax the smooth muscle of the blood vessels to decrease arterial pressure.
diltiazem
(Cardizem) calcium channel blocker used in conjunction with nitrates and beta blockers to treat angina.
verapamil
calcium channel blocker used in conjunction with nitrates and beta blockers to treat angina
nifedipine
(Procardia) calcium channel blocker used in conjunction with nitrates and beta blockers to treat angina
captopril
(Capoten) drug used to treat myocardial infarction (MI)
losinopril
(Prinivil,Zestril) drugs used to treat myocardial infarction (MI)
quinapril
(Accupril) drug used to treat myocardial infarction (MI)
What is the most commonly used medication to help prevent a second heart attack?
aspirin
SA node
a small mass of specialized muscle in the posterior wall of the right atrium. Because of automatic self-excitation, the SA node initiates each heartbeat. The SA node is known as the "pacemaker" of the heart.
AV Node
(atrioventricular) is a group of muscle fibers that conducts the action of the heartbeat, located in the right atrium along the lower part of the septum. Here the transmission is delayed briefly, allowing time for the atria to complete their contraction. From the AV node, the action potential spreads into the specialized muscle fibers called the Purkinje fibers which form the atrioventricular bundle also called the bundle of His.
fleacanide
(Tambocor) drugs used to treat arrhythmia
quinidine
(Quinaglute, Quinidex) drugs used to treat arrhythmia
lidocaine
(Xylocaine) drug used to treat arrhythmia
Norpace
drug used to treat arrhythmia
Procainamide
(Pronestyl,Procan SR) drugs used to treat arrhythmia
Lotensin
ACE inhibitor drug used for treatment of hypertension
captopril
(Capoten) ACE inhibitor drug used to treat hypertension
enalapril
(Vasotec) ACE inhibitor drug used to treat hypertension
lisinopril
(Zestril) ACE inhibitor drug used to treat hypertension
Accupril
ACE inhibitor drug used to treat hypertension
What hypertensive drug is also used to relieve the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal in patients who have quit smoking?
clonidine (Catapres)
Lipitor
drug used to treat hyperlipidemia
Lescol
drug used to treat hyperlipidemia
Mevacor
drug used to treat hyperlipidemia
Zocor
drug used to treat hyperlipidemia
prostaglandin
produces vasodilation and relaxation of the smooth muscle
Dipyridamole
(Persantine) this drug is no longer used for angina, but is primarily given to patients who have coronary artery disease, but cannot tolerate an exercise stress test.
What do anticoagulant drugs do?
stop clot formation by inhibiting one or several clotting factors
heparin
most commonly prescribed anticoagulant drug
warfarin
(Coumadin) most commonly prescribed anticoagulant grug
dicumarol
anticoagulant drug
What do platelet aggregation inhibitors do?
prevent platelets from clumping (aggregating) to form a clot.
Aspirin
platelet aggregation inhibitor
dipyridamole
(Persantine) platelet aggregation inhibitor drug
Ticlid
platelet aggregation inhibitor drug
Anticoagulant drugs are not effective in dissolving clots that have already formed. Instead, ___ ___ and ___ ___ are used to lyse (cut) the thrombi (clot)>
tissue activators
thrombolytic enzymes
streptokinase urokinase
thrombolytic drug used to lyse (cut) the thrombi (clots) once formed.
cryoprecipitate
used to treat bleeding disorders (hemophilia), using a freezing method
protamine sulfate
binded with heparin, this drug is used to treat heparin overdose or reverse the therapeutic effects of heparin administered during surgery for cardiac bypass
Vitamin K
is a coagulant drug used to restore normal blood clotting time