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84 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy (dissect or cut)
The science of structure and the relation of it’s parts.
Physiology (study of nature)
The science of body functions
Surface Anatomy
Form and markings of the body surface through visualization or palpation
Gross anatomy
Structures visible to unaided eye
Systemic anatomy
Specific system of the body (examples?)endocrine
nervous
respritory
integumentary
skeletal
Regional anatomy
Specific regions of the body (examples?)
Embryology
Subcategory of developmental anatomy (conception to 8thweek of gestation)
Developmental anatomy
Fertilized egg to adult form
Pathological anatomy
Anatomical changes due to disease (pathology)
Histology
Tissue structures
Cytology
Cellular structures
Radiographic anatomy
Using x-ray technology to study anatomy (CT, MRI, etc.)
Structure and function are complementary to each other.
Structure determines functional possibilities.
Structure designs the specific function
Function influences the size, shape, action, and reaction of the structure.
Cell
Basic unit of structureand functionin living systems
Tissue
Groups of cells that work together to perform a particular function
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
Organ
Structures that are composed of different types of tissues
Example:
System
Related organs having a common function
Organism
Collection of systems (“a living thing”)
Levels of Organization
Chemical,Atom,Molecule
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
System
Organism
Integumentary
Skin andrelated structures (hair, nails, etc.)
Protects body, regulates temperature, eliminates wastes
Skeletal
Bones, joints, and cartilage
Supports and provides protection for the body
Houses cells that will become blood cells
Muscular
Participates in and facilitates movement and body position
Generates heat
Nervous
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory organs
Senses and responds to body conditions through nerve impulses
Endocrine
Hormone producing cells and glands
Regulates body by releasing hormones
Cardiovascular
Blood, heart, and blood vessels
Carries blood and nutrients to specific locations in the body
Assists in elRegulates acidity, temperature, and water balanceiminating wastes
Lymphatic
Lymphatic fluid, spleen, lymphocytes, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils
Transports fats and proteins to cardiovascular system
Filters blood, provides location for white blood cell maturation, and protects against disease
Respiratory
Lungs
Regulates acid/base balance, supplies and carries oxygen, eliminates carbon dioxide
Digestive
Esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, etc.
Physical and chemical breakdown of food and elimination of waste
Urinary
Kidney, bladder, urethra, ureters
Collection and excretion of waste products; regulation of fluid, electrolyte, and acid/base balance
Reproductive
Ovaries, testes, uterus, etc.
Reproduction of an individual or organism
Human Anatomical Position
In the anatomical position the subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level, the eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor, feet directed forward, and the arms at their sides with the palms facing forward.
All anatomical descriptions are in reference to this position.
Cranial
Skull
Cervical
Neck
Cubital
Elbow (antecubital-front)
Carpal
Wrist
Patellar
Front of knee
Orbital
Eye
Thoracic
Chest
Inguinal
Groin
Metacarpal
Hand/palm
Plantar
Sole of foot
Buccal
Cheek
Axillary
Armpit
Femoral
Thigh
Gluteal
Buttock
Tarsal
Ankle
Digital or Phalangeal
Toes or Fingers
Superior
Above, top, toward head
Inferior
Below, bottom, away from head
Anterior (Ventral)
Toward the front
Posterior (Dorsal)
Toward the back
Medial
Toward the midline
Lateral
Away from the midline
Intermediate
Between medial and lateral
Ipsilateral
Same side of body
Contralateral
Opposite side of body•
Proximal
Nearest to the origination
Distal
Farther from origination
Superficial
Toward the surface
Parietal
Pertain to cavity walls
Visceral
Pertain to the covering of an organ(s)
Body Planes
Body Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that separate the body or body part into portions
Sagittal Plane
Vertical line parallel tomidsagittalplane that divides the body into right and left halves.
Midsagittal Plane (median)
Vertical line dividing body or organ into equalright and left halves (Example: right and left brain hemispheres)
Parasagittal Plane
Vertical line parallel to midsagittal plane that divides the body into unequalright and left halves.
Frontal (Coronal) Plane
Right angle to midsagittal plane dividing body or organ into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions.
Horizontal (Transverse)
Horizontal line parallel to the ground that separated superior and inferior portions
Body Cavities
Body cavities are spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs. These cavities are separated by bones, muscles, and other connective tissues.
Body Cavities
Body cavities are spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs. These cavities are separated by bones, muscles, and other connective tissues.

There are two principal cavities, dorsal and ventral. There are also cavities within cavities.
Dorsal Body Cavities
Cranial and Vertebral
Ventral Body Cavities
Thoracic
Mediastinum
Pericardial
Pleural
Abdominal/pelvic cavity Body Cavities
Separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm/inferior
Body Cavities
Brain
Dorsal, Cranial
Lungs
Ventral, Thoracic, Pleural
Bronchi
Ventral, Thoracic, Pleural
Intestines
Ventral, Abdominal & Pelvic
Kidneys
Ventral, Abdominal
Spinal Cord
Dorsal, Vertebral
Stomach
Ventral, Abdominal
Heart
Ventral, Thoracic, Mediastinal, Pericardial
Urinary Bladder
Ventral, Pelvic
Sex Organs
Ventral, Pelvic
Quadrants and Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
Identification of quadrants and regions in the abdominopelvic cavity helps clinicians describe the location of the many abdominal and pelvic organs.

There are 9 abdominopelvic regions and 4 quadrants.