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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gastrointestinal tract, digestive tract and alimentary canal are other names for _______________ _____________
digestive system
process of altering chemical and physical composition of food
Physician who specializes in the study of disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract.
What is a nutrionist?
health professional who studies and applies principals and science of nutrition
What are the 2 sections of the digestive system?
upper gastrointestinal tract and lower gastrointestinal tract
name the parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach
name the parts of the lower gastrointestinal tract
large and small intestine
salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and panreas are known as what
related or accessory organs
oral cavity
buccal cavity
what makes up the oral cavity
lips, cheeks, hard and soft palate, uvula, tongue, and papillae
where is the hard pallate located?
upper, frontal portion of the roof of the mouth
what are rugae
irregular ridges or folds in the hard palate and stomach
where is the soft pallate located?
posterior portion of the roof of the mouth
Small cone shaped projection @ the end of the soft palate that aids in digestion and producing sounds and speech
what is the priciple organ of taste
mass of strong, flexible, skeletal muscle covered in mucous membrane that aids in mastication and swallowing
what are papillae
small rough elevations on the tongue that contain tastebuds
Food mixed with saliva, and shaped into a ball like mass are called __________
another word for throat
how many pairs of salivary glands are there
what are parotids
salivary glands
what is mosty water, and contains mucus and digestive enzymes
what is the enzyme for carbs
what enzyme is for fats
what is the portion of the pharynx that leads from the mouth called
where is the nasopharynx located
behind the nasal cavity
what are tonsils
masses of lymphatic tissue in the depressions fo mucus membranes of the oropharyngeal area
when the soft palate and uvula move up to facilatate food movement into the pharynx what is it called
which part closes off the larynx to direct food into the esophagus
propeltion of food through the pharynx is called
peristaltic movements
where is the stomach located
upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity
how many divisions is the stomach broken into
upper rounded portition of the stomach
what part of the stomach is the central portion
the body of the stomach curves which way
what part of the stomach is the closest to the duodenum
regulates passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum
pyloric sphincter
what is the job of rugae in the stomach
to streach and accomadate contents
depressions between rugae are for what
to secrete gastric juices to futher digestion
what do gastric juices contain
enzymes and hydrochloric acid
when food is partially digested and in the stomach it is called
the duodenum, jejunum, ileum are parts of
small intestines or small bowels
what connects the pylorus to the jejunum
1st part of the small intestines is how long and does what
recieves chyme and liver and pancreas secretions
what part is the second part of the small intestines
what connects the jejunum with the large intestines @ the ileocecal sphincter
what is the function of the small intestines
to complete digestion and to pass waste to the large intestines
how do nutrients make it to the blood
through the small intestines
what are the function of villi
to surround the capillaries in the small intestines
ileocecal junction is
the begining of the large intestines
the ileocal is a _________ ___________ that ___________ backflow of _________
muscular ring prevents waste
where is the cecum located and how far does it extend
right side of the abdomen, 2-3 inches
the longest portion of the large intestines
how many divisions does the colon have
begins @ the ileocecal junction, curves upward toward the liver on the right side of the abdomen and makes a horizontal left turn @ the liver
ascending colon
__________ _________ begings under the liver and crosses the abdomen under the stomach
transverse colon
which portion of the large intestines us on the left side of the abdomen
descending colon
The _______ _______ is the point where the ascending colon turns left
hepatic flexure
the point where the transverse colon truns down is
splenic flexure
what is the portion of the descending colon that connects it to the rectum (s shaped)
sigmoind colon
what is the largest gland in the body
lacated ummedialtely under the diaphragm and slightly to the right and responsible for the production of bile
what are hepatocytes
liver cells
what is bile for
emulsify fats for futher digestion in the small intestines
where is bile stored
synthesis of vitamin k, plasma protiens, amino acid metobolism, carb metabolism, and glucogenesis
liver functions
what is glycogenesis
conversion of excess glucose into complex sugar for storage
________ is complex sugar stored in the liver for when sugar is extremely low
when the liver breaks glycogen into glucose it is