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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how many chromosomes are in each somatic cell?
46
how many choromosomes are in each sex cell?
23
if there are extra #21 chromosomes what disorder forms?
downsyndrome
how long do chromosomes measure if they are all layed out?
2 meters
what proteins does DNA wind around?
histone spools
what are chromosomes made of?
DNA and proteins
why do cells do mitosis? (2 reasons)
grow, repair damage
what is it called when bacteria do mitosis?
binary fission
what is it called when the cell actually splits into two pieces?
cytokinesis
how long does the enitre replication process take?
20 minutes
why do bacteria not do mitosis? (lacking what?)
no nucleus
mitosis means:
nuclear fission
how many genes in a human?
30,000
mitos means:
thread
what is/isn't related to the complexity of a species?
quantity of DNA is
quantity of chromosomes is not
what STATE are chromosomes most photographed in?
duplicated
two definitions of gene:
who said them?
"One gene codes for one polypeptide chain"- Beadle and Tatum
"A unit of heritable information"- Mendel
what is each side of a duplicated chromosome called?
sister chromatid
what is the protein belt that holds the duplicated chromosome together?
kinetochore
what is the 'waist line' of a chromosome called?
centromere
what are the exceptions of having 46 chromosomes in each cell?
red blood cells, liver cells
what is it called when an organism has two sets of instructions?
diploid
what is an exception of a eukaryote that is a haploid?
male bee
what are a pair of chormosomes called?
homologous pairs (homologs)
which pair of chromosomes determines your sex?
23
what are the 23rd chromosome of a female? male?
f- XX
m- XY
of the X/Y chromosomes which is longer? shorter?
X- longer
Y- shorter
what is the location of the gene on the chromosome calles?
locus (loci)
what is the different 'flavors' of a gene?
allele
what 3 things must match in homologs? (in a karyotype)
length, band patterns, centromere locus
what are cells with one set of 'instructions' called?
haploids
what are sperm and egg cells called?
gametes
what are the first 22 pairs of chromosomes called?
autosomals
what is it called when being a diploid and haploid alternate?
alternation of generation
what are the brown spots under the boston fern called?
spores- sporophytes
what are the 4 parts of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophases
how long is a cell in interface for? (%)
95%
what is the DNA and protein called when it's not wrapped around the histone spools?
chromatin
the dark circle in the nucleus
nucleolus
what are the 3 parts of interphase?
G1, g2, synthesis
cells double in size
G1
most parts duplicate
G1
first check point
G1
what drives cells out of G0?
injury
where do cells go if they don't pass the first check point?
G0
each chromosome replicates it's DNA
S
copy and original hooked together by centromere
S
each copy is a sister chromatid
S
protein kinetochore belt wrapped around their centomeres
S
what is the nucleolus?
in nucleus where similar genes intersect
centriole pair replicataes
G2
tubulin protein made
G2
what are microtubules made of?
tubulin protein
enzymes need for mitosis produced
G2
second check point
G2
what types of cells are centrioles found in?
animal
centrosome
centriole pair
what are the little spikes coming out of centrosomes?
aster fibers
what forms as the centrosomes spread apart from eachother?
mitotic spindle fibers
what directs the making of ribosomes?
nucleolus
name when DNA wraps around histone spools
condensing
longest of 4 mitotic phases
P
duplicated chromosomes condense
P
nucleoulus disappears
P
centriole pairs are in the middle of centrosome
P
centrosomes move apart from eachother forming spindle fibers between them
P
aster fibers sprout around the centrosomes
P
karyotypes made
M
nuclear membrane breaks down
M
kinetochore attaches to short fibers coming out from centrosomes
M
duplicated chromosomes move to the spindle equator
M
another name for the spindle equator
metaphase plate
shortest of the 4 mitotic phases
P
duplicated chromosomes split at centromere
P
each chromatid is now its own chromosome
P
non kinetochore microtubules strech the cell into egg shape
P
kinetochore microubules pull the chromosomes to the poles of the cell
P
spindle fibers break apart
T
chromosomes uncondense (relax)
T
nucleoli reappear
T
nuclear membrane forms around the chromosomes
T
what are the spindle fibers called that connect to the kinetochore?
kinetochiore fibers
ER stands for
endoplasmic reticulum
what is the point of cleavage called in animal cells?
cleavage furrow
what is it called when the cell splits in two?
cytokenesis
what is plant 'cytokenisis'?
cell plate formation
how do plant cells perform cell plate formation?
phosphplipids start a wall between new cells, cellulose becomes deposited in phospholipid and become new cell wall
what are the only animal cells that don't do cytokenesis?
skeletal muscle cells
is cytokenisis part of mitosis?
no
with which phase does cytokenesis sometimes overlap?
telophase
what are the two main mitosis regulating proteins?
CDK and cyclin
what are the enzymes that transfer phosphataes?
kinases
which enzyme levels stay constant throughout mitosis?
CDKs
cyclin+CDK=?
MPF
what does MPF stand for?
m-phase promoting factor
what are the two functions of MPFs?
cyclin production to cut down, increase proteases
what do proteases do?
'eat' cyclin
what is it called when mitosis must stop filling an injury site?
density-dependent inhibition
what is it called when cells must be on something to grow?
anchorage dependence
what do platelets release when injured?
PDGF
what is PDGF?
what does it do?
a growth factor, stimulates mitosis
EGF-
PDGF-
IGF-
NGF-
epidermal groeth factor
platelet derived " "
insulin-like " "
nerve " "
what are genes that are activated by growth factors called?
protooncogenes
onco means
cancer
what do mutations in protooncogenes cause?
oncogenes (cancer cells)
how many protooncogenes are known? what are the most well know ones?
30+
ras, mol, myc, fos, jun
which are genes called that stop mitosis?
tumor suppressor genes
what are the most common tumor suppressor genes?
TNF, NF, Rb, P53, BRCA1, BRCA2
what does Rb stand for?
retinoblastoma
what happens if a tumor suppressor gene is mutated?
cyclins and CDKs get together and mitosis goes unchecked
what is the most important tumor suppressor gene?
P53
if a cell isn't healthy what does P53 call for?
apoptosis
how many codons is P53?
393
why are high levels of P53 found in cancer areas?
because it is the number 1 tumor suppressor gene
how mnay 'hot spots' are there for mutations in P53?
4