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20 Cards in this Set

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Phase in which cell doubles in size and DNA content
Interphase
Phases of Interphase
G1
S
G2
G0
Quiescent phase no more synthesis occurs
G1
-period of after mitosis
-RNA and Protein synthesis
-Cyclin D & E bind to Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) to initiate progression to S
S
- DNA replication
- Protein synthesis
- Chromosomal duplication
- Centromere duplication
- Cyclin A binds to CDK to enter G2
G2
-2-4 hours
-Centrioles grow
-Energy for mitosis stored
-RNA and Proteins for mitosis synthesized
-Tubulin for spindle apparatus synthesized
-Cyclin B initiates entry to M phase
Mitosis
-2 identical daughter cells
-Prophase
-Prometaphase
-Metaphase
-Anaphase
-Telophase
Prophase
-nuclear envelope and nucleolus begin to disappear
-chromosomes condense
-2 sister chromatids attached at centromere
-Centrioles migrate to opposite poles giving rise to astral rays and spindle fibers
-DNA = 4n (doubled)
Centrosome
-centrioles
-α-tubulin rings in a cloud
-Microtubule Organizing Center (MTOC)
Chromosome
-2 parallel sister chromatids attached at centromere
-Kinetochores form at centromeres, MTOC
Prometaphase
-nuclear envelope disappears
-kinetochore microtubules form
-polar microtubles (spindle mt not attached to kinetochore)
Metaphase
-chromosomes align at equatorial plate of mitotic spindle and attach to spindle mt at kinetochore
-4n DNA
Anaphase
-chromatids separate at centromere cohesion degrades, spindle elongates
-4n DNA
-Contractile ring of actin microfilaments forms around cell
Anaphase A
-kinetochores shorten, pulling daughters to poles
-(-) end directed motor protein at kinetochore
Anaphase B
-overlapping polar mt slide against each other pushing on opposite pole and pulling towards its own pole
-(-) end directed motor proteins at astral mt. binding to cell cortex
-(+) end directed motor proteins at midbody of overlapping polar mt.
Telophase
-each daughter reaches a pole
-mt in the overlapping polar midbridge mt depolymerize  cytokinesis
-nuclear envelope reforms
-nucleoli reappear
-cell returns to interphase appearance
-2n DNA
Microtubules
-Mitotic spindle
-Polar: go toward the equatorial plane
-Astral: go towards one end of pm
-Kinetochore: from the centromere
-Grow towards (+) end
-No spindle no cell division, so cancer drug target
-Taxol: stabilizes mt. so no division
-Anti-MT: Colchichine; Vinblastine; Nocodazole
Actin
-contactile ring during cytokinesis
-bipolar myosin II filaments slide actin against itself
Intermediate Filaments
-breakdown of and reassembly of nuclear envelope
-phophorylation of lamins triggers disassembly of nuclear lamina
-P added around prophase, and removed after prophase
Fate of Organelles in Mitosis
-ER, Golgi vesiculate when nuclear envelope breaks down, reform in telophase
-Mitochondira, peroxisomes and lysosomes remain unchanged