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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In their discussion of mental health services for Latino clients, Rogler et al. (1987) describe three ways of increaseing the cultural sensitivity of therapy for members of this group. These methods include all of the following except:
A: Incorporating elements of Latino culture into therapy.
B: Increasing the accessibility of mental health services for Latinos
C: Selecting standard treatments that best fit Latino culture.
D: Obtaining cultural sensitivity training.
D
Describe Wolpe's classical conditioning view of neurotic depression. Neurotic depression is a response to __________ and can, therefore be alleviated by using ______________ to eliminate it.
Neurotic depression is a response to anxiety and can, therefore be alleviated by using systematic desensitization to eliminate the anxiety.
Among white males, the highest suicide rates are among those 75+, but among African American males, the highest suicide rates are for those aged ______?
25-44
Michael Rutter, a key figure in developmental psychology, notes that parental divorce does not have the same effect of all children. According to Rutter, such differences are related to what?
The child's early social interactions, especially interactions with his/her parents.
A customer service representative who has to deal frequently with customer complaints is least likely to get depressed if he attributes the customers' problems to factors that are _______, _______, ________.
external, unstable and specific (remember depression is related to attributions that are internal, stable, and global)
Feature integration theory predicts that the perception of an object as an entity rather than a cluster of unrelated features depends on
A: focused attention
B: selective attention
C: integrated attention
D: divided attention
A: focused attention is required for perception of an object to occur
According to Berry's acculturation model, marginalization is characterized by:
A: low involvement in the mainstream culture
B: low involvement in both the mainstream culture and the minority culture.
C: low involvement in the minority culture
D: low involvement in the mainstream culture and high involvement in the minority culture.
B
Alcohol withdrawal and cocaine withdrawal share several symptoms, which of the following is not associated with cocaine withdrawal but is associated with alcohol withdrawal:
Insomnia
Psychomotor agitation
anxiety or dysphoria
grand mal seizures
D: grand mal seizures
Research on children's early language development suggests that a distinction can be made between an expressive style and a referential style. Which of the following is true regarding the referential style?
A: Children exhibiting a referential style exhibit rapid vocabulary growth with clear "spurts" in the acquisition of words during the early stages of language development.
B: For chldren with a referential style, early words are linked to social relationships and are primarily pronouns and person-social words.
C: The speech of children with a referential style is less clear than the speech of those with an expressive style.
D: Children exhibiting a referential style are more likely to be boys or later-born children than girls of first-born children.
A: the other statements are true of an expressive style. Children with a referential style use content words and object names to describe their world, while expressive children used their words more to regulate their social interaction with adults.
Which of the following models of leadership provides a decision-tree to help a leader determine whether an autocratic, consultative, or concensual decision-making style approach is best given the nature of the work situation?
A: Fiedler's contingency model
B: Hersey and Blanchards situational model
C: Vroom and Yetton's normative model
D: House's path-goal model
C: Vroom and Yetton's normative model
Psychophysics
Just noticeable differences, which are psychologically equal intervals
An adolescents behavior is motivated primarily by her needs for power and attention. Her problems would probably be best addressed by a therapist adopting the approach of:
Adler
Ellis
Perls
Freud
A: Adler: according to Adler, a desire to belong is a primary motivator of behavior, but this desire may be channeled into the mistaken goals of power, attention, inadequacy, or revenge.
Practitioners of IP therapy describe depression as involving what three components?
Interpersonal relations, symptom formation, and personality. They are interested in early contributors to symptoms, which may be either psychobiological or psychodynamic.
What is the primary difference between Alzheimer's Disease and Korsakoff's Syndrome?
Alzheimer's Disease involves both memory loss and other cognitive impairments, while Korsakoff's Syndrome involves memory loss without the other cognitive impairments.
Holland
good "fit" between personality type and job environment
House's path-goal theory
Optimal leadership style varies depending on the situation but always involves helping workers to achieve their goals.
Donald Super
Job choice, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction are predicated on the SELF-CONCEPT
Amphetamine and Cocaine intoxication
Vomiting, confusion, pupillary dilation
Cannabis intoxication
increased appetite, dry mouth
Caffeine
diuresis, flushed face, periods of inexhaustibility
alcohol intoxication
slurred speech, nystagmus, memory impairment
What is the purpose of advocacy consultation? Working with _____________ to help these groups further their goals through changes in ___________________.
WOrking with disefranchised groups to help these groups further their goals through changes in human service agencies.
The phenomenon of theme interference in an I/O setting is most analogous to which of the following phenomenon in psychotherapy?
Cognitive restucturing
Transference
Resistance
Catharsis
B: Transference; theme interference is associated with Gerald Caplan's model of mental health consultation. Theme interference is when a worker displaces past or present problems onto a task situation at work. Thus, both phenomenons involve the displacemt of past feelings or unresolved conflicts onto a present person or situation.
Regarding therapist-client sexual relations, therapists who become sexually involved with a patient typically do so with a patient who is significantly _____________.
younger; research also showed that psychologists who had obtained a high level of professional achievement and who had completed psychotherapy were more likely to become sexually involved with their patients.
Over the past few decades, the suicide rate for Af. Amer. males has been ____________ than White adolescent males, but their has been a(n) _______________ in the rates for both groups
Lower, increase
In the multitrait-multimethod matrix, a low heterotrait-monomethod coefficient would indicate:
Low convergent validity
High convergent validity
Low divergent validity
High divergent validity
D: high divergent validity. The multitrait-multimethod matrix is one way of assessing a test's construct validity. The matrix contains correlations among different tests that measure both the same and different traits using similar and different methodologies. The heterotrait-monomethod coefficient reflects the correlation between two tests that measure different traits using similar methods (e.g., the correlation between a test of depression based on self-report data and a test of anxiety also based on self-report data--if this test has good divergent validity, the correlation would be low). Divergent validity is the degree to which a test has a low correlation with other tests that do not measure the same construct.
What is Beta?
The probability of making a Type II error, or of retaining the false null hypothesis. It is the probability of failing to detect a true effect.
A __________ test will have a higher correlation with itself than with other tests.
A reliable test will have a higher correlation with itself than with other tests.
Research in the 1960s and 1970s found that, in school settings, teachers tend to pay more attention to boys than girls. More recent research has suggested that this finding was due to what?
THe fact that boys display a higher proportion of learning and behavior difficulties.
Effect size
magnitude of differnce between control and experimental group means
In a normal distribution, the range of scores represented by the percentile rank range of 50-55 is _________ than the range of raw scores represented by the percentile rank range f 90-95.
less
You develop a new assessment instrument designed to make the process of diagnosis easier and faster. In validating the test, you will mostly be interested in the test's _________ vaildity.
Concurrent
Predictive
Content
Construct
A: concurrent. The test is designed to predict a person's diagnosis. Whenever you have a test designed for the purpose of prediction, your primary concern in criterion-related validity. The higher the test's criterion-related validity, the greater the accuracy of the test's predictions. The two types of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent. Predictive validity is your concern when trying to predict someone's future scores or status, while concurrent validity is the concern when trying to predict someone's present status. Here you are trying to predict the current diagnosis.
Social comparison theory suggests that an individual is most likely to join a group if, compared to that individual, group members are (SIMILAR, DISSIMILAR) in terms of personality characteristics and (MORE, LESS, EQUALLY) competent.
similar, equally
The most effective consultant interventions in the school target:
The environment
The students directly
The environment
What is the name of the reference work that provides information about psychological tests and critical reviews of tests?
Mental Measurements Yearbook
Which of the following interventions would most likely be employed by a family therapist whose work is based on minuchin's structural family therapy?
A: enactment, giving homework, making a family map
B: taking a family history, making a genogram, joining the family
C: issuing paradoxical directives, exploring multigenerational transmission, reframing
D: taking a family history, tracking, issuing paradoxical directives
A: Minuchin's structural family therapy focuses on modifying aspects of the family structure (e.g., rules, boundaries, coalitions) that underlie family dysfunction. Enactments are role plays used to evaluate and modify the fafmily structure; homework is designed to bring about concrete change; family maps are diagrams of the family's boundaries. He is not interested in focusing on the past, but is present oriented.
What is reframing in family therapy?
Reframing is a technique used by structural and strategic family therapists. It involves relabeling or redefining a problem in order to get the family to see it in a new light (e.g., a child who talks back is expressing insecurity and the need for love, rather than anger and disrespect). The purpose is to increase the family's compliance with treatment.
_____________ involves reinforcing component parts of one simple behavior; __________ involves many simple behaviors that are linked to form a more complex behavior.
shaping, chaining
DSM_IV relies on a ________ and ___________ approach to diagnosis
categorical, polythetic
Is there a relationships between Bulimia Nervosa in adulthood and childhood sexual abuse
Yes, recent research shows that sexually abused children are more at risk.
Psychoanalytic and operant learning theories have in common the idea of :
conditioning
individualism
irreversibility
determinism
D: determinism, both theories share the notion that our behavior is in a large extent predetermined.
In a positively skewed distribution, rank the following in order from the lowest to the highest value:
Mean
Median
Mode
Mode, median, mean
How do you differentiate between Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder?
In conduct disorder, more severe antisocial behavior patterns (at least 3) are seen, such as stealing, running away from home, fire-setting, truancy, etc.
What is the best approach to reduce a child's aggressive behavior?
Identify the consequences of the behavior and alternatives to it.
Transactional therapists would attend to the following except:
A: strokes
B: paradoxical directives
C: ego states
D: scripts
B, in the TA paradigm, transactions (i.e., communications) involve getting and receiving strokes. For example, a husband's child ego state withholding sex is giving a negative stroke.
Is PMS typical in most women.
No, women in general do not experience PMS. For women with PMS, the sx occur shortly before and terminate shortly after the onset of menses
Current research indicates that males score higher in math achievement on:
SAT only
grades only
SAT and grades
neither SAT nor grades
A: SAT only
The error inherent in the best fit regression line is called the standard error of the:
estimate
mean
measurement
coefficient
estimate
In applied industrial settings, Maslow's theory has been shown to be:
A: applicable for lower-level employees only
B: appropriate for supervisors but not managers
C: applicable across the board
D: not applicable
D, for instance, the notion that lower level needs, such as pay and job security, cease to be important once they are satisfied has not been shown in the literature.
Which of the following is least likely to attentuate a measure of correlation?
Restricted range
Homoscedasticity
Curvilinear relationship
Use of unreliable measures
B: homoscedasticity is the scatter around the regression line and is a good thing
Define operant extinction.
Operant extinction is removing reinforcement for a behavior that has been previously reinforced.
A 14-year anorexic girl is rewarded with a token every time she eats. In other words, she is on a __________ schedule of reinforcement:
continuous
variable ratio
fixed interval
variable interval
A: continuous
Behavioral assessments are used to determine behavioral:
Intervention
Etiology
Constraints
Contingencies
D: contingencies, which refers to the antecedents and consquences that maintain the bx that one seeks to alter
An infant enjoys playing with a rattle, and when it is not available, begins to use a spoon in the same way. This is an example of:
Adaptation
Assimilation
Accommodation
Imitation
B: assimilation, once a schema has been established, new experiences are assimilated in such as way that they fit into the existing schema (e.g., spoon as a rattle). When experiences can no longer fit into the existing schema, this forces the person to modify the schema (accommodation). The process is referred to as adaptation.
According to cognitive dissonance theory, we are likely to change our _____________ to match our __________.
attitudes, behavior
T or F: Jurors who believe in a just world are likely to blame the victim.
True
Explain the difference between hostile and instrumental aggression.
Hostile aggression arises out of emotions, while instrumental aggression is used as a means to an end.