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45 Cards in this Set

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The Systems Development Life Cycle Consists of _______, ______. _______, and _______
Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation
The person that identifies opportunities for improvements and designs an information system to implement them is called a ________ ________.
Systems Analyst
In this Phase,
Project Initiation develops a system request, conducts a feasibility analysis.
Project Management develops a work plan, staffs the project, and controls/directs the project.
Planning Phase
In this Phase,
Develop analysis strategy, gather requirements, and develop a system proposal.
Analysis Phase
In this Phase,
Develop a design strategy, design architecture and interfaces, develop databases and file specifications, and develop the program design.
Design Phase
In this Phase,
Construct system, Install system and implement a training plan for users, and establish a support plan.
Implementation Phase
Methodology: good for complex and reliable systems
Waterfall method
Methodology: good for complex, reliable systems with a short time schedule
Parallel Method
Methodology: good for unclear user requirements, unfamiliar technology, complex and reliable systems. excellent for short schedules
Phased method
Methodology: excellent for unclear user requirements, short time schedules
Prototyping method
Methodology: excellent for unclear user requirements, unfamiliar technology, complex and reliable systems, and good for short time schedules
Throwaway Prototyping
Methodology: excellent for unclear user requirements, and short time schedules, good for reliable systems and schedule visibility.
Extreme Programming
_______ design balances its focus on the processes and data of the system
Object-Oriented
a two-dimensional systems development process described by PHASES and WORKFLOWS
Unified Process
In the Enhanced Unified Process, the supporting workflows include... (3)
Project Management
Operations and Support
Infrastructure Management
The role of the _____ ______ _____ includes ensuring that adequate documentation and support are available to the users.
Change Management Analyst
A standard set of diagramming techniques
Unified Modeling Language
A decision making body that considers system requests and makes the initial determination of whether to investigate the proposal for a new or improved system is called the _______ committee.
Approval
The person who identifies the business value that can be gained from using information technology is called the ______ ______.
Project Sponsor
In order to approve a system request, the approval committee must know...
the high level functionality of the system.
______ Value: Results from an intuitive belief that the system provides important, but hard-to-measure, benefits to the organization
Intangible Value
ex: improved customer service
no money value directly on the value, but it can be made that money will be saved/gained with it.
______ Value: Can be quantified and measured easily
Tangible Value
ex: 2 percent reduction in operating costs. money directly on the value.
A System Request consists of five elements:
- Project Sponsor - Primary point of contract for the project
- Business Need - Reason prompting the project
- Business Requirements - Business capabilities the system will need to have
- Business Value - Benefits the organization can expect from the project
- Special Issues - Anything else that should be considered
A _______ _______ guides the organization in determining whether to proceed with a project. Identifies risks that must be addressed if the project is approved.
Feasibility Analysis
Components of Technical Feasibility (flip)
Familiarity with Application - Less familiarity creates more risk
Familiarity with Technology - Less familiarity creates more risk
Project Size - Larger projects have more risk
Compatibility - Difficult integration increases the risk
Formula for Return on Investment (ROI)
(Total benefits - Total Costs) / Total Costs
Formula for Break Even Point
(Yearly Net Cash Flow - Cumulative Net Cash Flow) / Yearly Net Cash Flow

Use the yearly net cash flow from the first year that the project has a positive cash flow. Add the above amount to the year in which the project has a positive cash flow minus one.
Formula for Present Value
(Cash Flow Amount) / (1 - Interest Rate)^n

n=number of years in the future
Formula for Net Present Value
(Sum of PV Benefits - Sum of PV Costs)
Stakeholders Include:
Project Champions
Senior Management
Users
Other
A process that optimizes project selection and sequencing in order to best support business goals is ______ _______ ________.
Project Portfolio Management
Project management involves balancing trade-offs among the three key project parameters, which include:
Cost
Schedule
Performance
KNOW FUNCTION POINT APPROACH: Example we did in class will help!
Estimate System Size (Function Points and Line of Code)
Estimate Effort Required (Person-Months)
Estimate Time Required (Months)
A dynamic schedule that records and keeps track of all TASKS to be accomplished over the course of the project is called a ____ ____.
Work Plan

- created after a project manager has a general idea of the project's size and rough schedule.
- usually the main item in a project management software application
- analysis phase
Identifying Tasks: 3 ways to list tasks
1. Work Breakdown Structure
2. Gantt Chart
3. Pert Chart
LOOK IN BOOK FOR VISUALS
Scope _____ happens when new requirements are added to the project after the original project scope was defined and frozen
Creep
Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools automate some or all of the development process
Advantages Include:
- Reduced Maintenance Costs
- Improve software quality
- Enforce discipline
- assess the magnitude of changes to the project
_______ _______ step is the MOST CRUCIAL step of the entire SDLC
Requirements Determination

more than half of all system failures are due to problems with requirements
A statement of what the system must do or what characteristic it must have is a _________.
Requirement

- during analysis, requirements are written from the perspective of the businessperson
- 2 kinds (Functional, Nonfunctional)
Interviews
Questionnaires
Observation
Joint Application Development
Document Analysis
Techniques available to the systems analyst for determining requirements.
_______ Analysis - Users and managers identify problems with the as-is system and describe how to solve them in the to-be system
Problem Analysis

-solves problems rather than capitalize on opportunities
- small and incremental improvements
_____ _____ Analysis - Users not asked for solutions, but for a list of prioritized problems and root causes for these problems
Root Cause Analysis

- analysts investigate each root cause to find solutions for the highest priority problems and root causes that are common to multiple problems.
_____ ______ ______ makes moderate changes to the way in which the organization operates to take advantage of new opportunities offered by technology or to copy what competitors are doing
Business Process Improvement

- Duration Analysis - see how much time each step takes
- Activity-based Costing - see how much each step costs
- Informal Benchmarking - see how competitors are doing it and see if it will help the company
_____ _____ _____ - changes the fundamental way in which the organization operates
Business Process Reengineering

- Outcome Analysis
- Technology Analysis
- Activity Elimination
Most Useful Method for collecting Information!!! _____ _____ _____
Joint Application Development

Allows the project team, users, and management to work together to identify requirements for the system.