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82 Cards in this Set

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CHEMISTRY
THE STUDY OF MATTER
CHEMICAL
ANY SUBSTANCE THAT HAS A DEFINED COMPOSITION
CHEMICAL REACTION
The process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances.
States of Matter
The physical forms of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas, and Plasma
Solid
Fixed volume and shape, particles held in a rigid structure, vibrate only slightly
Liquid
Fixed volume, not shape. Particles flow past each other, take on the shape of the container.
Gas
Neither fixed volume nor shape. Molecules weakly attracted
Physical changes
Changes in which the identity of a substance doesn't change; changes of state
Chemical Changes
Identities of substances change and new substances form
Reactant
A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
Product
A substance that forms in a chemical reaction
Evidence of a chemical change
Evolution of gas
Formation of precipitate
Release or absorption of energy: light or temperature
Change in color, odor, or taste
Defined composition
Always the same "stuff", no matter the origin
Chemical reactions ->
Chemical changes
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Volume
A measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
Mass (definition)
A measure of the amount of matter in an object; a fundamental property of an object that is not affected by the forces that act on the object
Weight
A measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object
Conversion Factor
A ratio that is derived from the equality of two different units and that can be used to convert form one to the other
Physical property
A characteristic that doesn't involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness
Chemical Property
A property of matter that describes a substances ability to participate in chemical reactions
Length (SI)
meter
Mass (SI)
kilogram
Time (SI)
second
Thermodynamic Temperature
Kelvin
Amount of substance (SI)
Mole
Electric Current (SI)
Ampere
Luminous Intensity
Candella
Quantity
A property that can be measured
-time
-length
-mass
-temperature
Unit
The size of the pieces the object is measured in
Atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
Pure substance
A sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite physical and chemical properties
Element
the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance. It can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
Molecule
The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance. It can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded together
Compound
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Mixture
A combination of two or more substances not chemically combined
-In a mixture, proportions of ingredients may vary
Homogeneous
Describes something that has a uniform structure or composition throughout
Heterogeneous
Composed of dissimilar materials
monoatomic
With one atom existing individually
Diatomic elements
-gens and -ines
Energy
The capacity to do work
Evaporation
The change of a substance from liquid to gas
Endothermic
Describes the process in which heat is absorbed from the environment
Exothermic
Describes the process in which heat is released to the environment
Law of Conservation of Energy
Law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another through physical or chemical means
Heat
The energy transferred between objects of different temperatures
Kinetic engergy
Energy of motion
Temperature
A measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in an object
Specific heat
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a homogeneous material by one degree C
Work
Force applied through distance
Energy Units
Joules
Kinetic Energy
KE=1/2mv^2
Boiling
Only occurs at one temperature
Occurs throughout the liquid
Evaporation (Under what conditions?)
Occurs at any liquid temperature
Occurs only at the surface
Sublimation (Under what conditions?)
Occurs at any solid temperature
Occurs only at the surface
Scientific Method
A series of steps followed to solve problems
Hypothesis
A theory or explanation that is based on observations that can be tested

Mimier Definition: An Educated Prediction
Theory
An explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observations, experimentation, and reasoning
Law
A summary of many observations and experimental results
Law of Conservation of matter
Law that states that matter cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes
2 Main Steps to Scientific Method
Hypothesis
Controlled Experiment
Controlled Experiment
Changes only 1 independent variable (x) and measures the effect on "y"
Laws
Specific rules that explain <i>how</i> nature works
Theories
General explanations of <i>why</i> nature behaves the way it does
Model
A way to visualize something that is too big, too small, or too complicated to deal with.
Precisou
Exactness or detail of a measurement
-or-
How well a group of measurements agree with one another
Accuracy
How well the measurements agree with the accepted value
Law of Definite Proportions
The law that states that a chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions in weight or mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
When two elements combine to form two or more compounds, the mass of one element that combines with a given mass of the other is in the ratio of small whole numbers
Dalton's Principles
-All matter is composed of extremely small particles, which cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed
-Atoms of a given element are identical in their physical and chemical properties
-Atoms of different elements differ in their physical and chemical properties
-Atoms of different elements combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds
-In chemical reactions, chemicals are combined, separated, or rearranged, but never created, destroyed, or changed.
Democritus
400 BC: came up with idea of atoms. Shot down by Aristotle
John Dalton
1800: Law of definite proportions
Electron
A subatomic particle with a negative charge
Nucleus
An atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
Proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge, found in the nucleus
Atomic number determined by...
Number of protons
Thomson
1897: discovers electrons coming out of every using cathode rays. Disagrees w/ Dalton, makes "plum pudding" model
Rutherford
1909: Gold Foil experiment.
Rutherford's conclusions
-Something in the atom is very hard, dense, small, positively charged, and massive = nucleus
-99.99% empty space, makes up most of the volume of the atom
-Electrons on the outside

Solar System Model
Chadwick
1931: neutrons
Atomic Number (symbol and definition)
Z, number of protons
Mass number (symbol and definition)
A: number of protons+number of neutrons