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179 Cards in this Set

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Scar
Material of Wound healing
For scar to mature- 6 months to 2 years
Collagen
Glue-like protein that is the chemical of a scar
Epithelialization
Occurs whenever a wound breaks the skin in both primary and secondary intention healing
Process by which the top layer of skin heals itself
Primary Intention
Simple laceration or cut that is sutured directly in a straight line
No intervention needed
Secondary Intention
Wound that's missing tissue so that the skin edges of the wound cannot be brought together
handicap
result of disability
Real world affect of disability on individual in their world
disability
Deficit
Either physical, emotional, or intellectual diagnosed by specialist in the field
Criteria to be a part of VESID
Must have disability that causes significant vocational handicap and that after VESID services are used, are able to function at maximum ability
New York Heart Association Classifications
Functional capacity of heart in which physicians and researches accept as a standard for classification of cadiac conditions
Functional Classifications
Doctor's estimate of a person's symptoms
Estimate of what heart will allow person to do
Class I: no real losses
Class II, III
Class IV: inability to carry any activity without discomfort
Therapeutic Classes
Reflects the amount of physical activity recommended by the treating cardiologist considering all factors
Class A: physical activity doesn't need restriction
Class B, C, D
Class E: confined to bed, chair or wheelchair
Dyspnea
shortness of breath
METS
Metabolic Equivalent
1-10 Leveling
Estimate energy expenditure of physical activity int erms of oxygen consumption required to accomplish a task
Correspond to amount of oxygen required to perform given activity
Anginal Syndrome
temporary
Some don't subside- Cardiainficiency
Rheumatic: inflammation, degeneration and swelling of connected tissue
Rheumatic Carditis
Inefficient pumping
Individual develops strep
Damage to heart remains after strep infection goes away
Inefficient pumping
Heart can't propel enough blood
Cor Pulmonale
Heart/Lung condition
Cor: heart
Pulmonale: lungs
Cor Obstructive Pulmonale Disease (COPD)
Chronic
Asthma, Emphysema, Bronchitis
Affects bloods ability to pump through lungs
Part of heart- strain on right side
-> enlarged: heart is working too hard
Retinitus Pigmentosa
Slow loss of peripheral vision
night blind to total blindness
Diabetic retinopathy
Nerves cannot feed retina
Ischemia: blood vessls serving retina
Retina detaches from the back of the eyes
Opthamalogist
MD specializing in disease and muscles of the eye
Optomotrist
Person who measures for glasses and visual acuity
Optrician
Makes and sells glasses
Definition: Legally Blind
20/200 with correction
20/20 with 20 degrees or less field vision
Degenerative Disk Disease
Nucleus pulposus becomes flatter with time because of dehydrating and older age
Painful
Why old people shrink
Cardiovascular
Umbrella for all of heart and entire system
Distribute oxygen to every live tissue
Blood removes byproducts/wastes/hormones
Myocardio infarction
Heart attack
Angina Pectoris
Chest pain
Heart is not getting enough blood- which carries oxygen
Form of ischemia
Occlusive Arterial Disease
type of cardiovascular disease
Sclerosis
Scarring
Angioplasty
Stent is sent through artery to blockage and then pushes open plaque
Repair of artery
Stent
metallic cage into artery by catheter
Released into & open up artery
Ednartectomy
Removal of interior Artery
Ischemia
inefficient blood supply to some part of the body
physiatrist
doctor of physical medicine and rehabilitation
edima
swelling
can take up to a year to go away
CVA
cerebral vascular accident
Not necessarily TBI
stroke
insufficient blood flow to the brain
occlusion
blocked completely
Necrosis
process of dying tissue
Infarct
area of dead tissue
Pathy
disease process
Arteries
Aorta- largest artery in body
Take blood away from heart
All carry oxygenated blood except Pulmonary Artery
Pulmonaorta- Right Heart
Red coloring
Veins
Vena Cava- largest vein in body
Take blood to heart
Blue-ish tint
All carry deoxygenated blood except Pulmonary Vein
Gives up oxygen
Pulmonary Vein- Right Heart
CHF
Congestive Heart Failure
Due to heart having difficulty pumping sufficient oxygen to the body
Fluid builds up
leads to Scarring
Vasodilators
Drugs that cause vessels to expand

Alcohol
Nitroglycerine
Vasoconstrictors
Drugs that cause vessels to constrict

Nicotine
Visine
Intermittent Claudication
Temporary Form of ischemia
Example: legs fall asleep due to inability to receive oxygen rich blood required during exercise
May not occur under certain conditions then acts up and tgoes away when stop activity
5 Stages of Mourning
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
Person with disability suffers same process
Mourning loss of ideal self
Leads to adjusting process
Atherosclerosis
Same as arteriosclerosis except takes place in one of larger arteries
May be localized
Narrows artery
Leads to ischemia
suffering: pins and needles, pain, numbness, fatigue
Arteriosclerosis
Generalized condition throughout body
Scarring of arteries, build up of fluids, plaque, cholesterol, fats
deposits inside vessels on walls
Thinning of the walls of the artery
Artery becomes rougher, can cause clot
don't pump blood as well- arteries stiffer
lead to occlusion
Rheumatic Fever
Inflammation of the heart from infection
Left Heart Systemic
Left ventricle to Right Atrium to all organs except Lungs
Right Heart Pulmonary
Right ventricle to Left atrium through Lungs
Myocardium
Smooth muscle- has mind of its own
Heart murmur
Regurgitation
4 valves in heart
blood enters in wrong direction
Paralysis
Complete absence of motor functioning
Paresis
Partial diminishment of motor functioning
Plegia
Loss of functional ability
Lateralization
2 halves of brain not indentical
Brain is different on each side
Language cente ron left side on almost everyone
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Mini-stroke
Once blood supply resumes, the area will function again
Resumes within 48 hours
Warning sign of major stroke
Lacunae Infacts
very, very tiny strokes
One may not even notice
Little section may eventually build up to affect something major
Brain
Most sensitive to oxygen deprivation
3 1/2- 4 minutes without oxygen -> brain damage
If CNS tissue dies- brain cannot be repaired
2 circulators:
Right: all blood to lungs
Left: All blood to remainder of body
Muscle
Homunculus
Dwarf
Motor strip is inverted
Depending on where damage on strip is- depends on where part of body is affected
Pericarditis
outside/perimeter inflammation of heart
Endocarditis
Inside inflammation of heart damage
Destructive to other changes in tissue
Reduced Blood Supply Symptoms
Intermittent Claudication
Angina Pectos
Vasodilator
Narrowing Vessels
Arteriosclerosis
Artherosclerosis
Cor pulmonale
CHF
Rehab for CVA
1. Strengthening of residual motor ability
2. Spontaneolus recovery
Peripherineurapathy
Not getting enough circulation
Death to nerves
Many people who have this- have diabetes and peripherovascular disease
Motor and sensory nerves impacted
Immediate Prosthesis
Right after surgery
Psychological and physiological affect
Temporary Prostehesis
Prosthesis and socket put on
Swelling will diminish
Muscle diminishes over time
Permanent Prosthesis
Functioning, better fit
Sock used to accommodate shrinkage
Suspension
Quadrilateral sockets- taking pressure from socket off stump to eliminate and prevent infection
Autoimmune Disease
Body's own defense system turns on itself
Antigen invades, antibodies fight and defeat
Problem: antibodies start recognizing itself as if they were invaders
Attack beta cells
Continual Damage
Swelling
leads to ischemia
No circulation
damage- leading to dead tissue
Eschar
layer of dead, burned tissue
tends to shrink as forms
can lead to tourniquette effect
then to echarotomy
Surgical Care of burn involves
Reduce pain
Protect against bacteria
Close wound to prevent fluid loss
Removal of dead tissue debriedment
Contactors
Skin shrunk, muscles shrunk
Joints seize, immobile because in single position
Allergies
Pathogenesis similar to arthritis
Autoimmune disease
Reserved for when reaction is excessive
Asthma
Allergy in lungs
Antibodies attack antigen
Release vasoanthrohistimine- produce too much in vessels
Take antihistime
Cause bronchioconstrictions- airway passages tighten- hard to breathe
Allergy treatment
1. Control Environment
2. Pharmacatherapy
3. Immunotherapy
parapetologist
mobility instructor
low visioin specialist
optomologist with specialization
What does skin do?
Protects
prevents loss of fluid
Regulates body temperature
Epithelium
Skin-
1.7 square meters of skin on body: Largest organ of body
Epidermis
Upon dermis
Upper outer layer
4 layers thick, 5 layers on feet and hands
holds germinal epithelial cells: production sites for new skin
Dermis
2 layers of connected tissue
thicker inner layer
House:
hair follicles
Sebatious glands (fatty oil glands)
Sweat glands
Lined with germinal epithelial cells
Rule of Nines
Body viewed as multiple of 9's
Lund and Browder Chart
Body parts change in size over years
How bad the burn is depends on:
1. Extent of Burn
2. Depth of Burn
3. Predisposing factors
Superficial
1st Degree or Partial Thickness
Burn in epidermis
Bright red, pink skin
Blisters (wet and soft)
Heal from lower level epidermis (germinal epidermal)
no scarring
Partial Thickness
2nd Degree or Deep-Partial Thickness
Epidermis is gone
All or part of dermis
Leave dermal appendages
Waxy, white, dry, elastic, sensitive to pressure
Heals 3-4 weeks and from margins
not as attractive when healed
scars occur
Full Thickness
3rd Degree
Entire depth of skin: epidermis, dermis,dermal elements, and some subcutaneous tissue
Spontaneous regeneration not possible
Dry, black, leathery, not elastic, eschar
No pain or pressure senses
4th Degree
Burn down to bone
Amputation required
Burned beyond recognition of any body part involved
Debriedment
Removal of dead tissue
Must be done before wound is closed
Remove non-viable dead tissue
Tweezers
Scrub it off
Surgical
Chemical Enzymes
Grafting
Definition & Reason
Biological Dressing

1. Maintain life
2. Preserve functioning
3. Maintain cosmetic effect
Autograft
Graft from good place on own body
Optimal and permanent
Homograft
from same species, dead or alive
Permanent to some degree
Heterograft
Xenograft
different species (pig)
temporary 4-6 weeks
Rejection
Hypertrophic Scarring
Excessive growth
Cosmetically unattractive
Not functional
Bumps and contours
Prevented by wearing pressure garment 24/7 for 2 years
Rheumatism
Umbrella term that deals with many problems characterized by inflammation and degeneration of connective tissue
Arthritis
inflammation of joints
Supply of nerves and blood to bone
Osteoarthritis
Definition, Causes & Symptoms
Degenerative joint disease
Not actually a disease
Normal wear and tear of joints over years
Wearing down of cartilege
Natural process
Can lead to break down of synovium

Causes:
Overweight
Poor posture
Poor alignment
Not walking right
Age

Symptoms:
Dolar: pain
Tumor: Swelling
Loss of Function
Cartilege
cushion that prevents bone from touching bone, very smooth
Does not regenerate after time
Synovial Membrane
Produces fluid to lubricate joints
Stops being produced over time
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Rubor, Dolar, Tumor, Loss of Functions, Calor
True Disease
Still's Disease
Affects joints, tendons, ligaments
Onset is when child is born
causes problems with growth plates and may lead to dwarfism
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Antigen enters joint and attacks synovium causing body to send antibodies which produce an exnzyme and creates more swelling
Becomes continuous cycle
Eventually bone starts to get broken down also
Causes of RA

Symptoms of RA
1. Hereditary
Adulthood

2. Swelling, system wide involvement
White cell rises, leading to sickness
rubor- red
calor- hot
dolar- pain
tumor- swelling
loss of functioning
Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
1. Reduce inflammation
2. Night Splinting
3. Surgery- synovectomy
joint replacement
Arthrodesis
Gout
hereditary
rheumatic disease affecting soft tissue
metabolic disease
all 5 cardinal symptoms
uric acid crystalizes in joints
very painful
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Fusion of spinal joints of 2 or more vertebrae
Antigen in vertebrae
causing bad cycle of inflammation and antibodies
bones grow and may fuse together inhibiting movement in the spine
Spondylolisthesis
Person is not born with proper facets that keep vertebrae aligned
Vertebrae may slide forward
Causes pressure on roots, cord and ligaments
Very painful
Usually in lower, lumbar region
Think: lego blocks
Herniated Intervetebral Disc
injury to annoulus
nucleus pulposus squeezing through pressure on ligaments and nerve endings
Rods
periphery of eye
More plentiful
Black and white, low and dimmed vision/light
Cones
Color and acquity
More plentiful in center of best vision
Broad day light
Cornea
Clear part of eye
Sclera
White part of the eye
Lens
refractive medium
relaxes and contracts
Retina
Converts to electrical enery
Light sensitive back of eye
Conjuctiva
Mucus membranes
line socket and lids
Iris
color part
open pupil to let more light in
Optic Nerve
originates at retina
Goes to brain
Optic Disc
all cells
Blind spot
Macula
general area try to get image to focus on
Mostly cones
Area of good vision
Fovia
Very center of macula
Not good for night vision
All cones centered here
Best vision in good light
Ciliary Body
set of muscles that makes lens and iris open or close
contracts and releases lens and iris
Cataracts
cloudiness/opacity of lens
all or partial replacement of lens needed
prosthesic impant
if partial cataract- may come back
seile cataract- with old age
result of trauma, surgical, heat, or system disease
presbyopia
old vision
lens doesn't refract fully anymore
hardening of lens
astigmatism
multi-focusing
irregular shaped lens or cornea
strabismus
crossed eyes
muscular imbalance between eyes
Can be corrected surgically
Hyperopia
Fat sited
Focus behind retina
Distance is better
Myopia
Near sited
Focus in front of retina
Emmetropia
Proper vision with refraction
Amblyopia
lazy eye
patch is put on good eye to correct
brain confused and shuts down lazy eye
Nystagmus
involuntary side to side movements of eye
spastic
Glaucoma
#1 cause of blindness
pressure in eye due to not draining fluid
interoccular pressure
blocakge of canal of schlemm
Medications to open up- laser surgery
Problem: if not caught early -> blindness
Macular degeneration
areas of no vision
eye creates an additional blind spot
macular holes- no central vision
Thrombosis
arteries get occluded and then a clot forms
Clot occurs at site of narrowing
Embolism
Clot that forms somewhere but then traveled and got stuck in another place
Think: Emigrant
Aneurysm
Ballooning of an artery
Weak arterior walls
something you're born with and may never cause a problem
Hemorrhage
Exploding of an aneurysm or vessel
Artery is broken
Focal Occlusion
Tumor putting pressure on another vessel or tissue
Aphasia
Decefit in language
Receptive: Broca's Area
Expressive: Wernicke's Area
Disinhibition
Do things they would not otherwise do
Decubiti
Break down of skin
Bed sore
Dysarthria
Difficulty mouthing words
Ataxia
incoordination
Apraxia
Ability to function spontaneously but cannot function when asked to
1. Limb apraxia
2. verbal apraxia
Agnosia
Loss of recognition of certain sensory stimuli
Tactile Amnesia
Can explain object when in sight but cannot when not in sight using touch
Propioception
Knowing where your body parts are in space
Simultaneous Processing
Ability to do multiple things at once
Hemianopsia
Without half vision
Left CVA- cannot see anything on right
Right CVA- cannot see things on left
Peripheral Vascular Disease
problem getting blood circulation to periphery of body
example: arms, legs, nose
Varicose Veins
Valves not completely closed
Results in back up of blood and puddles
Painful
Phlebitis
Vein inflammation
Can lead to thromophibitis
then lead to Embuli
Bacteria that's irritating vein
Buergers
inflammatory changes in arterior walls
lead to amputations
Raynauds
increase or decrease extremities
Veins contract and result in less blood flow
False message
Bad in winter
Disarticulation
amputation through any joint
hemicorporectomy
amputation from waste down
only reason: cancer of pelvis
not common
Prosthesis
replaces body part
Endoskeletal
inside skeleton
example: hip replacement
Exoskeletal
outside skeleton
example: prosthetic arm
Terminal Device
what goes on end of prosthesis
ex: hook
Phantom limb pain
amputation below the knee, brain does not know foot is gone
everything proxial gone
everything distal is present
nerves can still get stimulation from what used to be parts of the foot
soon disappears
Piecemeal
Take one amputation at a time
Not recommended
Example:
1. Take toes
2. Ankele
3. Etc.
Orthosis
assists a body part
Example: brace
ortho= straight
Brittle Diabetes
Through no fault of the person
Cannot maintain good control of blood sugar
Diabetes insipidus
pituitary gland produces an antidiahhretic- tells how much fluid to maintain
Results: polydipsia- very thirsty
Polyurea: multiple urination
Polydipsia
very thirsty
Polyurea
Multiple urination
Diabetes Mellitus
sugar in urine: glycouria
disorder of carbohydrate metabolism
cannot break down sugar because body not producing enough insulin
glycouria
sugar in urine
Type 1: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Total obliteration of beta cells
occurs in childhood
no insulin being produced
injections necessary
AKA: juevenile diabetes
Develop betwen 21 years of age
Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Not dependent on insulin
Adult onset
Not a total loss of beta cells
Hereditary
treatment with diet and exercise
Pill: hypoglycemic agent
Body not able to get enough energy from sugars
Hyperglycemia
excessive sugar in blood because of lack of insulin to break it down
Body dispose of it through urine
Hypoglycemia
too little blood sugar because of injection of too much insulin
Polyphagia
Excessive hunger
because no matter how much you eat, body cannot break down sugars to use it for energy
Lose weight
Keytosis
diabetic coma
results of polyphagia and body breaking down body fat to use as energy
produces keytones- waste product of this activity
Vasculopathy
vascular disease