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72 Cards in this Set

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Give a general explanation of fungal sexual and asexual reproduction.
Sexual: Mycelium of 2 different mating strains undergo plasmogamy, to create a dikaryon cell(n+n). Then it undergoes Karyogamy (2n) to make a diploid zygote. It quickly undergoes meiosis resulting in spores, which are dispersed to make a new mycelium.

Asexual: Mycelium (n) makes a haploid spore bearing structure, and spores form on it by mitosis. These spores are dispersed and will germinate when the conditions are favorable.
*remember when it is haploid and when it is not!
What is a Deutromycete? Give two examples.
It is another term for "Imperfect Fungi", which means it does not have a KNOWN sexual life style.
Examples: Yeasts, Penicillium
What does each member of a lichen provide?
The fungi provides dissolved minerals from the rock face, and organic elements that the algae needs, specifically nitrogen.
The algae provides the fungi with sugars, amino acids, the products of photosynthesis- nutrients
It's more considered mutually parasitic than just plain mutual...
What are some major fungal ecological roles?
decomposer of wood (lignin), cycling nitrogen, some are saprobic (dutch elm, athletes foot, ring worm, also important for making things like beer, bread and cheese
Name and describe the four fungal phyla, the differences in their life cycles.
CHYTRIDIOMYCETE- early fungal ancestor
ZYGOMYCOTA- makes a heterokaryotic zygosporangia
ASCOMYCOTA- makes macroscopic fruiting bodies called ascocarps. It's sexually formed spores are produced in saclike asci.Asexually the make conidiophore which make spores called conidia.
BASIDIOMYCOTA- fruiting bodies are called basidiocarps (mushrooms), and their gills are called basidia, rare asexual reproduction.
The beginning of their names should give you a hint.
Name and describe the four fungal 'life styles'.
MOLD- rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungus
YEASTS- unicellular fungus
LICHENS- symbiotic relationship between algae and fungi
MYCORRHIZAE- mutualistic relationship between fungi and plant roots. They exchange mineral for organic nutrients.
There's four!!
What are the four major developments in plant evolution?
1) colonization of land
2) development of vascular tissue
3) development of seeds
4) development of flowers
*each will denote a different and/or improved way of dealing with the difficulties of land vs water.
Define what a plant is.
A plant is multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic and autotrophic.
Explain the problems associated with life on land, how did plants overcome these problems?
1) UV RADIATION (mutation)- seeds
2) RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION (in water, surrounded by resources)- specialization
3) DISSECATION (in water, drying out wasn't a problem)- waxy cuticle
4) REPRODUCTION (in water, gamete could swim to be united)- pollen
4) GRAVITY- support structures, cell arrangement with improved support
There are five listed in our notes...
What is a gametophyte? What is a sporophyte? Describe the very basic life cycle.
Gametophyte is haploid, it produces gametes.
Sporophyte is diploid, it produces spores.
LIFE CYCLE:
Sporophyte(2n) undergoes meiosis to make spores which will germinate and become the haploid gametophyte. Two different gametophytes will produce gametes wich will come together (fertilization) and this will creat the diploid sporophyte.
Name the three kinds of non-vascular plants.
mosses
hornworts
liverworts
What are the improvements non-vascular plants have over algae?
1) multicellular
2) cuticle
3) gametangia (to protect gametes from harmful radiation)
Think of algo, think of a moss, what are the differences?
Name the three kinds of non-vascular plants.
mosses
hornworts
liverworts
What are the improvements non-vascular plants have over algae?
1) multicellular
2) cuticle
3) gametangia (to protect the gametes from harmful UV radiation)
Name the male and female gametangia, and explain what they do.
Male -antheridia
It produces sperm which must swim to an egg to fertilize it
Female - archegonia
It produces an egg which remains there, where it will be fertilized.
Think about what you've learned in the lab...
Define heterosporous.
HETEROSPOROUS: makes two different kinds of spores, one kind that develops into a male gametophyte and one kind that develops into a female gametophyte
Think about what it is that spores (from the sporophyte) develop into...
How does moss sperm get to the archegonia?
It get's there by swimming through a thin layer of water- water is need for moss to reproduce.
Think about who closely moss is related to the water-living algae...
How do moss distribute minerals and water throughout theirselves?
Diffusion- they have no vascular tissue. This is why they are so small, b/c diffusion can only be effective over a small area.
well, mosses ARE non-vascular...
What part of the life cycle of a bryophyte is dominant?
Gametophyte
Describe the stand-out points of the non-vascular plant life cycle.
Gametophyte gametes unite, a small sporophyte is produced that remains attached to the gametophyte. It produces spores (heterosporous) that will be distributed and germinate into a new gametophyte. The gametophyte is the dominant generation.
What was probably the evolutionary basis for the development of vascular tissue?
As more plants colonized land, they began to compete for sunlight.
In order to get that sunlight, they couldn't be in the shade, so they had to grow taller.
In order to grow taller, they had to have a better system for the distribution of water and minerals, so vascular tissue evolved.
Name two types of vascular tissue and its purpose, and its direction of flow.
XYLEM: transports water and mineral
it flows from the roots up to the ends of the shoots and leaves.
PHLOEM: transports photosynthetic products from the leaves to all the other tissues in the plant, right down to the roots. (distributes nourishment)
If you don't know this, you're in trouble.
Name a transitional organism, it's characteristics, and how it's different from other ferns.
Horsetail (Equisetum)
It has small microphylls for leaves and no roots.
You saw this guy in the lab. Actually this is a crappy question and I'm not so sure that it even is a less evolved fern, maybe it's just differently evolved...
What do ferns have that bryophytes do not have?
vascular tissue, true roots and leaves
What are some names for a fern leaf? Why are these names used?
COMPOUND LEAF / MEGAPHYLL
Where many leaves branch off a single central stem (petiole)
FROND
another name for this same leaf
Outline the general fern life cycle, and how it's different from bryophytes.
The diploid sporophyte produces spores on sporophylls, specifically on the sori. Spores are carried off on the wind and grow into very small independent gametophytes that have both male and female reproductive structures (antheridia and archegonia). Sperm swims to the archegonia to fertilize the egg and a new sporophyte will develop there, relying on it for nutrients. It will establish a root system and and will gain its independence from the gametophyte.
Define sporophyll, sori, and homosporous.
SPOROPHYLL: a modified leaf that has spores on it.
SORI: the structure that spores are formed in, usually on the underside of a sporophyll
HOMOSPOROUS: one type of spore from the sporophyte will make one gametophyte that produces both male and female gametes on the same plant
These terms are key to the life cycle of ferns!
Why is self-fertilization not as good as cross-fertilization?
If the gametophyte fertilizes itself, and it has a mutation gene, then it will have two copies of the mutated gene in its sporophyte generation, where it will show up for sure. If it was not cross fertilized, then the mutation wouldn't show up.
What are 3 adaptations that seed bearing vascular plants have made since ferns, and why?
1) REDUCED GAMETOPHYTE - protected by sporophyte to reduce UV radiation mutation
2) POLLEN / POLLINATION - water is no longer needed for reproduction
3) SEEDS - young sporophyte is protected and more easily dispersed over further distances
Think about the life cycle....
What are stoma, what are their purpose?
Small pits with pores in them that are the site of gas exchange. They prevent water loss to wind during gas exchange
Outline the conifer life cycle.
Sporophyte produces two different types of cones, one which houses the male gametophyte and the other the female. The gametophytes are microscopic.
The female passes through several steps until an egg is made, and pollen (packaged male sperm) meets the egg to form a zygote. The female gametophyte adds food and a tough protective coating- a seed!
Is it hetero or homosporouse?
How did the pollen get to the megasporangium?
Explain the modified sporophyll.
What are the two major angiosperm groups? Give examples of each and their defining characteristics.
MONOCOTYLEDON - one embryonic leaf
grass, wheat, rice, corn
DICOTYLEDON - two embryonic leaves
oaks, apples trees
This question refers to some part of their embryonic stage.
How do angiosperms disperse pollen? How is that better than the way that gymnosperms do it?
Angiosperm pollen is dispersed primarily through insects. This is better than the wind because it is reliable and efficient. The insects and plants have co-evolved. Insects are less random then the wind. They increase the chance of the pollen from a plant of one species being brought to the stigma of a flower of the same species.
What types of xylem cells are found in angiosperms? What types are found in gymnosperms?
ANGIOSPERMS: vessel elements, fibers and tracheids
GYMNOSPERMS: tracheids
What is a purpose of a flower? How does it achieve that purpose?
The purpose is to attract insects to aid with pollination. It does it by have a reward in it - nectar, and by being brightly colored in a way that insects can easily see it.
Think about a flowers role in reproduction...
What are the parts of a flower?
SEPAL
PETAL
STAMEN - filament, anther
CARPEL - ovary, style, stigma
Define complete flower, incomplete flower, perfect flower, and imperfect flower.
COMPLETE - has all four major parts
INCOMPLETE - missing one or more of those parts
PERFECT - has both male and female flower parts
IMPERFECT - has either male or female flower parts, not both
What is the purpose of the sepal, petal, stamen and carpel.
SEPAL - to protect the flower as it develops
PETAL - to attract a pollinator
STAMEN - male reproductive organ- produces pollen on the anther
CARPEL - female reproductive organ, produces egg in ovary.
How have flowers changed/evolved over time?
1. Reduction of floral parts
2. Some floral parts have been fused
3. Flowers no longer always radially symmetrical
4. Ovary has dropped in position relative to the sepals and petals
There's four!
Define monoecious and dioecious.
Monoecious: has separate male and female flowers on one plant.
Dioecious: has separate male and female flowers on separate plants.
They are different forms of IMPERFECT FLOWERING PLANTS
What are the standout points of the Angiosperm life cycle?
A pollen grain contains two male nuclei. In the female ovary there are 8 haploid cells, and two fuse to make a dikaryotic cell. One of the 6 haploid cells becomes the ovule. The two pollen grains land on the stigma. One fertilizes the egg and the other fertilizes the dikaryotic cell, now triploid. This is called double fertilization. It will develop into the ENDOSPERM- the food layer. The ovary will develop a hard coat around the embryo, and now we have a seed!
What do you called the triploid part of the seed in angiosperms?
What are the functions of a fruit? Give examples.
Fruits aid in protection of the seed, and in dispersal.
examples: peas, apples, oranges
Explain the three types of fruits.
1) SIMPLE- a single fruit derived from a single flower with a single ovary (peach)
2) AGGREGATE - a fruit derived from a single flower with multiple ovaries (raspberry)
3) MULTIPLE - a single fruit made up of several flowers (pineapple)
Explain and contrast indeterminant growth with determinant growth.
Indeterminant growth is where the adult shape and size is determined largely by the environment (plants).
Determinant growth is where adult shape and size is determined mostly by genetics(animals).
Name and describe three types of root systems, and who has them.
TAPROOT: a main root vertical root, like a carrot - dicots
FIBROUS- little hairs radiating all around - moncots
ADVENTITIOUS - grow from parts of plant that are above ground, grow down into the soil from a horizontal shoot (corn)
What are root hairs and what do they do?
They are projections of the root epidermis. Their main function is to increase surface area for water and mineral absorption.
Define vegetative shoot and floral shoot.
VEGETATIVE SHOOT: bears leaves, could be found on the main stem or on a side branch
FLORAL SHOOT: bears flowers
Define axillary and terminal bud, internode, node, apical bud, and apical dominance.
AXILLARY BUD: buds that form at an angle between the stem and branch
TERMINAL BUD:the bud found at the end of a branch
INTERNODE: parts of stem between nodes
NODE: where branches originate and grow from the stem
APICAL BUD: the bud at the top of the plant, one that encourages vertical growth
APICAL DOMINANCE: as long as there is an apical bud, the plant puts its energy towards growing taller. When there is no apical bud, the terminal buds will be allowed to grow outwards
Name 4 things that angiosperms can use for asexual reproduction.
1) STOLON: a laterally growing stem that will eventually form its own roots and a new plant that breaks off old
2) RHIZOME: same as stolon, but below ground
3) TUBER: like a rhizome, but used primarily as food (potato)
4) Bulbs: vertical underground shoots modified to store food (onions)
Think about MODIFIED STEMS.
Name the 2 parts of a leaf. Compare and contrast monocot and dicot leaves.
petiole (stem) and blade
Monocots do not usually have a petiole, and have parallel arranged vascular tissue in the leaf. The blade is wrapped around the stem.
Dicots have both a petiole and a stem. They have vascular tissue that is more branched in the blade.
Name four things about leaves that allow them to be used as a taxonomic tool, and the morphological possibilities for each.
1) ARRANGEMENTS: can be perfectly opposite, alternating, or whorled around the stem.
2) NUMBER OF LEAVES PER PETIOLE: simple or compound (one or many)
3) LEAF SHAPE: heart, lancelate or triangular
4) LEAF MARGIN: toothed, lobed, undulated (wavy) or entire (smooth)
Think about some leaves you have seen in your head- what is different about them, how do you tell leaves apart?
Name the four types of plant tissue.
1) dermal tissue
2) vascular tissue
3) ground tissue

4) meristem tissue (undifferentiated always)
Name two further specializations of the dermal tissue.
root hairs: absorbing water and nutrients
cuticle: protects from dessication
Name the two vascular tissues, and what they do.
XYLEM: moves water and minerals up the plant from the roots to the rest of the plant
PHLOEM: moves the products of photosynthesis from the site of photosynthesis to the rest of the plant and roots for nourishment.
Describe the ground tissue, what it does and where it's typically located.
- is mainly the unspecialized bulk of the plant
- does photosynthesis, food storage and support sometimes
- fills the space between the dermal tissue and the vascular tissue.
Where is meristem tissue located, what is it, what does it do?
- located at places of active growth (tips of roots and shoots)
- it is undifferentiated tissue that allow plants to alter their shape depending on environmental conditions
Define protoplast, primary and secondary cell wall, middle lamella, pectin, plasmodesmata, and vacuole.
PROTOPLAST: all of the plant cell except the cell wall
1&2 CELL WALL: the 2 is found in some plants in between the membrane the the 1 cell wall. the 1 cell wall always is to the furthest outside
MIDDLE LAMELLA: the glue that holds adjacent cell walls together, specifically the PECTIN
PLASMODESMATA: pores that connect the cell walls of adjacent cells. Can be located in specific areas calls PITS
VACUOLE: large membrane bound organelle that functions in maintaining th water balance in a plant.
Name the three main types of plant cells.
Sclerenchyma
Parenchyma
Collenchyma
really funny, remember?
Describe parenchyma cells and their typical functions.
- least specialized
- all developing parts of plants
- fleshy parts of fruits
- function in photosynthesis, food storage and the fleshy parts of fruits
- alive at maturity
There are three functions (well, two and a half)...
Describe collenchyma cells and their typical functions.
- lack a secondary cell wall, no lignin
- have an unevenly thickened cell wall
- found in clusters or strands, or around the perimeter of the stem
- actively elongate ast the plant grows- alive at maturity
Describe sclerenchyma cells and their typical functions.
- cells specialized for support where growth has stopped
- dead at maturity
- contain lignin- don't elongate
- make up tracheid cells and vessel elements
In xylem tissue, what are two types of cells, who has them, what do they do?
1)VESSEL ELEMENT - short wide dead sclerenchyma cells that are lined up end to end to transport water (contain lignin)
- have large perforations in the ends of the cell to allow for water movement- only angiosperms have them
2)TRACHEID - a long narrow cell that is dead at maturity, sclerenchyma cell (contain lignin)
- ends of cell tapered to allow overlap of cells.
- at the end of the cell, only one cell wall layer, here are pores called pits
- all vascular plants I think have these
In phloem tissue, what are two types of cells, what do they do?
SIEVE TUBE MEMBER: alive at maturity, but no metabolic functions
- transport nutrients and photosynthetic products.
COMPANION CELL: performs all metabolic activity for the sieve tube member, found right next to them
What are apical meristems and lateral meristems? Who has them?
Apical meristem increase plant length and are found in herbaceous plants

Lateral meristem are found in wood plants and are responsible for growth in diameter.
NOTE: PRIMARY GROWTH is growth in height. SECONDARY GROWTH is growth in diameter.
Explain Initials and Derivatives in relation to a meristem.
Initials are the perpetually embryonic cells of the meristem they are capable of becoming any of the other three types of tissue, but they must first become a:
Derivative: can differentiate and be incorporated into any of the plant tissues.
Think about the type of tissue a meristem is.
What is a stomate?
It's a pore that can open and close to allow the plant better water regulation.
What is transpiration? What does it cause to occur within the vascular tissue?
Water loss through evaporation in plants. Water is cohesive, so as the water is pulled dout of the leaves, it is pulled up the roots. Water's adhesiveness to the inside of the plant also contributes to this force.
Think about the properties of water.
Describe the stem structure of a monocot. Discuss the arrangement of the three tissues, and the positions of the three cell types.
There is a layer of collenchyma cells below the dermis. The ground tissue is made of parenchyma cells. The vascular bundles are scattered in a complex way. The xylem is oriented towards the inside and the phloem is oriented towards the outside of the stem. The vascular bundles are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells.
Describe the stem structure of a dicot.
Beneath the dermis, there is NO layer of collenchyma cells. The ground tissue is split into the cortex (inner) and the pith (outer)all made of parenchyma cells. The vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the outer part of the stem. They are separated by PITH RAYS.The xylem is oriented towards the pith and the the phloem is oriented towards the cortex. The vascular bundles are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells.
Describe the aspects of root structure that monocots and dicots share, not including the stele, b/c it is discussed on another card.
- The waxy cuticle is reduced.
- Has root hairs present from the dermal tissue. (monocots have collenchyma under this layer, dicots don't)
- cortex important for food storage (space between the stele and the epidermis)
- vascular tissue organized into one central bundle- the stele
- have pericycle tissue and suberin
Define stele, suberin and pericycle.
STELE: the actual central bundle of vascular tissue. It's xylem and phloem arrangements depend on whether it is a dicot or monocot.
SUBERIN: A waxy ENDODERMAL layer that acts like a seal around the vascular tissue- prevents uptake of of unneeded and unwanted nutrients.
PERICYCLE: a layer of meristematic tissue
-allows for branching roots and allows these branches to maintain a connection to the central vascular bundle.
Compare and contrast the stele of a monocot and a dicot.
MONOCOT: have the vascular tissue arranged in a circle around the outer part of the stele. Pitch forms the center of the stele. The xylem lies slightly towards the center of the stele in comparison to the phloem.
DICOT:have xylem organized to form an X in the center of the stele. The phloem is found between the arms of the cross to fill up the rest of the stele.