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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
With spinal cord anatomy, what are the protective structures?
Vertebral Column and Meninges Protect Spinal Cord
With spinal cord anatomy, name the meninges?
– Dura Mater
– Arachnoid
– Pia Mater
Which meninges is the superficial covering and ends at the 2nd sacral level (S2)?
Dura Mater
Which meninges is the middle avascular covering?
Arachnoid
With the arachnoid meninge, what contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
Subarachnoid Space
Which meninges is the deepest covering?
Pia Mater
With the Pia mater meninges, what are triangular – shaped Pia mater extensions that anchor cord laterally?
Denticulate Ligaments
With gray matter, this is groups of cell bodies in the CNS?
Nuclei
Gray matter is subdivided into horns?
– Posterior
– Anterior
– Lateral
With gray matter, which horn contains sensory axon and nuclei?
Posterior
With gray matter, which horn contains somatic motor nuclei and control skeletal muscles?
Anterior
With gray matter, which horn contain autonomic nuclei and controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands?
Lateral
With gray matter, which horn is located in the thoracic and upper lumbar cord regions?
Lateral
In the columns of white matter, this is bundles of axons in the CNS?
Tracts
Which type of tracts conduct impulses to brain?
Sensory (ascending)
Which type of tracts conduct impulses from the brain?
Motor (descending)
How many and what type of spinal nerves are in the PNS?
31 pairs of mixed (sensory and motor nerves)
With the 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the PNS, how many pairs are in the cervical and where are they located?
– 8 Pairs
– C1 – C8
With the 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the PNS, how many pairs are in the thoracic and where are they located?
– 12 Pairs
– T1 – T 12
With the 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the PNS, how many pairs are in the lumbar and where are they located?
– 5 Pairs
– L1 – L5
With the 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the PNS, how many pairs are in the sacral and where they located?
– 5 Pairs
– S1 – S5
With the 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the PNS, how many pairs are in the coccygeal and where are they located?
– 1Pair
– Co1
These connect spinal nerves to the cord?
Roots
What are the 2 types of roots?
– Posterior (dorsal) Root
– Anterior (ventral) Root
Which type of root contains sensory neurons to the CNS and controls sensations?
Posterior (dorsal) Root
Which type of root contains motor neurons from CNS and controls movements?
Anterior (ventral) Root
Roots enter _____ and exit _____?
– Posterior
– Anterior
With spinal nerve coverings this is the outermost covering and surrounds entire nerve?
Epineurium
With spinal nerves coverings, this is the middle covering and surrounds axon bundles (fascicles)?
Perineurium
With spinal nerve coverings, this is the innermost covering, and surrounds individual axons?
Endoneurium
Spinal nerve branches are called?
Rami
2 types of rami?
– Posterior (dorsal) Ramus
– Anterior (ventral) Ramus
Within the spinal nerve branches, these are formed by anterior rami of all spinal nerves except T-2 – T 12 (intercostal nerves)?
Plexuses
Within the cervical plexus, what nerve innervates the diaphragm and is formed by C3, C4, and C5?
Phrenic Nerve
Which nerve injury has damage to the common peroneal (fibular) portion and results in footdrop the inability to dorsiflex?
Sciatic Nerve Injury (sciatica)
Area of skin that provides sensory input to CNS via spinal nerves or trigeminal nerve is called?
Dermatome
All spinal nerves are assigned to a dermatome except?
C1
With sensory and motor tracts, white matter contains?
Both Sensory and Motor Tracts
The name of the tract indicates?
Location in White Matter, Where It Begins and Ends
These monitor muscle length changes?
Muscle Spindles
These monitor excessive tension in tendons?
Tendon Organs
A reflex arc includes what 5 functional components?
– Sensory Receptor
– Sensory Neuron
– Integrating (processing) Center
– Motor Neuron
– Effector
Which of the 5 functional components of a reflex arc response to stimulus?
Sensory Receptor
Which of the 5 functional components of a reflex arc carries impulses to the CNS?
Sensory Neuron
Which of the 5 functional components of a reflex arc is the processing center?
Integrating Center
What are the 2 reflex types in the integrating center?
– Monosynaptic Reflex
– Polysynaptic Reflex
With the integrating center, the monosynaptic reflex has _____ CNS synapse?
1
With the integrating center, the polysynaptic reflex has _____ CNS synapse?
More than 1
Which of the 5 functional components of a reflex arc carries impulse from the CNS?
Motor Neuron
Which of the 5 functional components of a reflex arc has skeletal muscle (somatic) or smooth, cardiac muscle, or glands (autonomic/visceral)?
Effectors
What type of synaptic reflex does the stretch reflex have?
Monosynaptic Reflex
The tendon reflex causes muscle _____ to relieve muscle tension?
Relaxation
What type of synaptic reflex does the tendon reflex have?
Polysynaptic Reflex (> 1 CNS synapse)
Flexor (withdrawal) reflex initiates _____ _____ reflex at the same time causing _____ of opposite limb?
– Crossed Extensor
– Extension
Is the crossed extensor reflex ipsilateral or contralateral?
Contralateral (impulse inners and exits on opposite sides of the spinal cord)