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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Naturally Acquired vs Artificially Acquired immunity
Naturally- immune response against antigens encountered in daily life.

Artificially- response to antigens introduced via vaccine
Active vs Passive immunity
Active- active response to antigens via humoral or cell mediated responses.

Passive- passively recieving the antibodies from another source.
3 types of vaccines
Attenuated (live)
Killed (inactivated)
Attenuated viruses
for both bacteria and viruses. Attenuated vaccines use pathogens whose virulence has been reduced.
What is a main benefit to using Attenuated vaccines?
Herd immunity. vaccinated individuals can indect those around them with weakened pathogens.
problems with attenuated vaccines
Complications in immunocomprimised individuals and pregnant women. Modified viruses may be more virulent.
Inactivated vaccines
can be either whoe agents or parts of agents that are dead. formaldehyde is commonly used to inactivate the pathogen for vaccination (dangerous)
inactivated vaccine problems
No herd immunity, may cause inflammation response and is antigeneically weak.
inactivated vaccines are relatively weak antigenically. why? how is this solved?
Because the body did not produce and immune response. this is solved by adding Adjuvants to the vaccine. these are molecules which enhance the antigenicity of the vaccine.
Toxoid vaccine
Chemically or thermally modified toxins used to stimulate active immunity.
Anaphylactic shock
An allergic reaction that may develop to a component of the vaccine. (more common in vaccines with adjuvants).
Passive immunity
When the antibodies of an organism already subject to the particular pathogen are introduced to another organism.
the study and diagnostic use of antigen-antibody interactions in blood serum.
Immune testing includes many serological tests including
PPT test (w/ soluble antigen)
Agglutination (w/ complete cell (insoluble)
Neutralization (w/ viral or toxoid antigen)
Complement fixation test
PPT immune test
the mixture of antigen-antibody causes a ppt. (example OUCHTERLONY PLATE)
Agglutination test
cross linkage of antigen and antibody causes agglutination. (example determination of blood type)
Neutralization test
Virus usually kills culture cells. Upon abscence of cytopathic effects the antibodies against the virus have been made.
2 types of Antibody testing
Fluorescent antibody test and ELISA
Fluorescent antibody test
Uses fluorescent dyes to label the antigen and track it till it binds to its antigen.
Uses and problems od Direct Flouorscence antibody testing
Use: identify a small number of bacteria in a patient.

Problem: it proves prescence and DOES NOT QUANTIFY the amount of antigen present
enzyme linked immunsorbent assay

uses enzymes as the label. mostly used to identify the prescence of antibodues in serum.
How does ELISA work
The antigen being tested is sandwiched between two antibody molecules.
What are the benefits of ELISA?
Easy and cheap to perform.
Can QUANTIFY the amount of antigen present.
What is hypersensativity? how many classes are there what are they?
Hypersensatvity- an immune response against any foreign antigen thay is EXAGGERATED beyond the norm.

I- immediate
II- cytotoxic
III- immune-complex
IV- delayed or cell-mediated
Type I hypersensativity (immediate)
Commonly referred to as allergies. Develop within seconds and cause a localized immune response.
in hypersensativity I what is the function of basophils and eosinophils?
they release inflammatory compounds by binding to IgE the allergin antibody.
Conditions of Hypersensativity I (allergic reaction)
inhaled allergins may cause hay fever (upper RTI), asthma or hives.

Type II Hypersensativity
When cells are destroyed by an immune response (blood agglutination)
Transfusion reaction problems are an example of which class of hypersensativity? they may cause?
II (cytotoxic) and may cause kidney or liver problems.
Hemolytic disease in Newborns is an example of which class of hypersensativity? when is there a problem? solution?
Class II.
RH negative mom Rh + baby
Administer RHOGAN which destroys any fetal RBC that may have entered the body.
Type III hypersensitivity

what is it?
3 examples
immune response due to antigen-antibody complexes

1.) Systemic Lupus
2.) Rhuematoid Arthiritis
3.) Glomerulonephritis
Type IV Hypersensitivity
Inflamation due to contact with certain antigens.

A result of interactions with T CELLS (IMPORTANT)

1.) TB test
2.) Allergic comtact dermatitis
3.) Graft rejection
TB test and why it is an example of Type IV Hypersensitivity
No response occurs when injected into the body of a person without infection or vaccination.

Inflammation occurs when the person has been infected or vaccinated against TB.
Allergic Contact dermatitis
A cell mediated response (Type IV Hypersensativity) causing a skin rash. (Stye)
Graft rejection is an example of Type IV hypersensitivity. What are privaleged sites and give 2 examples.
Sites at which grafts are not likely to be rejected.

the brain and the cornea
Donor-recipient matching and tissue typing.

What is the first compatibility issues?
MHC compatibility needs to be as close as possible and therefore donors are usually parents or siblings (closer in MHC)
Autoimmune diseases
where the body produced antibodies and cytotoxic t cells that target normal body cells.
Autoimmunity affecting blood clotting
production of autoantibodies to leukocytes combats platlets and does not allow blood to clot.
Autoimmunity affecting endocrine glands
Production of autoantibodies attack the pancreas and cause Diabetic mellitus (inability to produce insulin)
Autoimmunity affecting endocrine glands
Autoantibodies may also attack the thyroid gland causing grave's disease
Autoimmunity affecting the nervous system
Multiple scleroris where cytotoxic T cells attack the myelin sheaths of neurons. May be caused by virus (???)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
B cells produce autoantibodies against collagen in joints (causes inflammation)
Primary vs Acquire immunodeficiency diseases
Primary- those that are acquired genetically.

Acquired- those that are obtained through life (envioronemnt) (AIDS)
AIDS does not kill it lowers all immune response to nothing and one of many oppurtunistic infections kills patients. (most commonly fungal infections and pneumonia).
Streptococcus species are
the MOST INFECTIOUS GENUS to humans (ex. Strep pyogenes)
Strep pyogenes causes
Strep throat, scarlet fever (kills erythrocytes), rheumatic fever (causes Heart disease) and skin necrosis (flesh-eating)
What is the most common treatment for strp pyogenes?
Penicilin and erythromycin
Streptococcus Pneumonia

causes pneumonia and ear infections.

Virulence problem because it is antiphygocytic

Treatment with penicillin or erythromycin
Staphylococcus aureus

commonly causes
Virulence factor
skin infections, food poison, toxic shock syndrome, impetigo (brown scab)

Nosocomial infections

Enterotoxin (food poison)
Superantigens- cause overrxn

Penicillin and erythromycin
Corynbacterium diptheriae

Diptheria (severe sore throat)
Phage encoded (toxin)
antibiotics and antitoxins
Vaccine (DPT)
Legionella pneumophila

Legionnaires' disease (pnuemonia with respiratory failure)

Bordetella Pertussis

Whopping cough
vaccine (DPT)
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

X Ray diagnosis
very hard to kill (mycholic acids)

clumps of phagocyzed macrophages appear in chest x-ray

treatment with ISONIAZID

A virus that causes the common cold (over 100 strains)
Influenza virus

the flu (bad cold, weak)

rapidly mutates by ANTIGENIC SHIFT (exchange of genomes in co-infected individuals)

Rubella (german measles) virus

problems in
a mild rash and cough

major problem in pregnant women which can lead to neurological brain defects

MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)
Chicken pox (virus)

later in life called
mild fever, rash and ITCH

Shingles (much more severe)