Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

263 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Reproduction is done by _______ in bacteria.
Binary Fission, taking one cell and splitting into two.
Define Budding.
reproduction method usually used by fungus (yeast) a-sexual reproduction, no change in genetics
Spores, how do they spread and what type of reproduction to what Kingdom.
Fungi can make spores, very tiny can get airborne easily, Each dot is a tiny bag filled with hundreds of spores that burst and release the spores. They fall and germinate, spread. A-sexual and sexual
Fragmentation of filaments
a-sexual reproduction, fungus can divide by this, take fuzzy growth put on a new peice of bread, it will grow. no mixing of genetic material
What type of growth is an increase in the number of cells?
Bacterial growth
When bacteria grows does it increase in size?
No, it increases in the number of cells. Not cell size.
The time required for a cell to divide.
generation time, one bacterial cell to divide to two. Called doubling.
Generation time is the time for a cell to ________.
Generation time of bacteria to double usually happens between___________.
20 minutes to 3 hours
Mycobacteriums generation time is what?
Usually 10 hours. Very slow growth.
The generation time for many pathonegenic bacteria is useful because....
It tells how soon the infection will develop in the person, how much are we talking about and how fast is this bacteria going to grow in this person. Useful to know to understand the logistics in the patient.
Describe Binary Fission
*cell growth is exponential
*environment has profound effect on growth
*species comete with each other for resources
Breakdown the term Binary Fission.
*Binary means into two
*Fission means breaking or splitting.
First step in Binary Fission.
Make an exact copy of the DNA, duplication or replication
What happens after the replication of DNA in Binary Fission
It's attached to the plasma membrane and slowly a wall is built between the two DNA molecules and the cytoplasmic contents are equally divided between the two. Once the cell wall is built the cell has obtained their maximum size
Streptobacillis after binary fission groups are:
the cells hang around each other and become a chain
After Binary Fission if the groups are rods or singles
they will seperate from each other and be independent
Binary fission is
identical and clones of each other
What is the most important effect on growth for bacteria?
environment, nutritional needs
Two types of bacteria in one inoculated tube, what happens?
The bacteria compete with each other or the bacteria and fungus compete.
Species are constantly _______ for resources.
Fleming discovered ______ by :
penecillin; he inoculate his plate with Stapholycoccus aureus, the plate was contaminated, found the fuzzy growth on one end and the S aureus stayed away from the fuzzy growth.
What does the fungus do to keep the bacteria growth away?
The fungus was releasing the antibiotic penecillin in the area around it keeping the bacteria away. The fungus competes with the bacteria and wins.
Breakdown antibiotic:
*anti means against
*biotic means life
Natural antibiotic definition:
something released by one living organism to kill off another living organism
Chemical antibiotic definition:
Something that is synthesized in a company by a chemist. Design a molecule that is very similar to a natural antibiotic.
Antibiotics are for ________ and ____________.
Survival and competition
Biofilms are _________ eachother.
helping. one species of one bacteria is helping the survival of another species.
Bioremediation happens because of what?
bacteria make a Biofilm to degrade those materials
We study the bacteial growth dynamics by studying them where?
In a controlled environment, lab.
Biofilms 7 characteristics;
1- beneficial for survival
2-help attach to surfaces
3- has characteristic architecture
4-contains open channels for movement of nutrients and waste
5-can cause disease
6-resist treatment and disinfection
7-bioremediation benefical use
What influences the study of bacterial growth?
enviromental concerns, other bacteria etc.
By studying bacteria in a controlled environment we can compute the growth by a ____________.
growth curve
Growth curve is _______.
plot of time versus the cell number.
We study bacteria in a controlled environment which....
has no new imput of nutrients and no removal of waste, population of cells increase in a predictable fashion.
Five distinct stages in a graph of time versus cell #
lag stage
exponential or log state
stationary stage
death stage
phas of prolonged decline
Lag time;
figuring out whether they have all the resources and metabolizing increasing enzymes and chemicals they need to reproduce.
lag time
period of incubation, cells prepared for growth, intense metabolic activity.
Log or exponential phase
happens after lag. # of births greater than # of deaths,
Bacteria increased in numbers, resources getting tight, number of births = number of deaths. What are the bacteria eating?
Feeding off the dead cells but toxicity levels go up and the culture starts to die.
After months or years after the culture can you find live bacteria and if so what phase is it?
yes, Prolonged decline phase.The bacterial cells have changed, become stronger.
Stationary phase:
births + deaths
cells exhaust nutrients
metabolic activity slows down
Death phase, what special survival mechanism is going on?
They form endospores if capable.
How does penecillin act on Gram+ bacteria and in which phase is it the most effective?
Prevent the synthesis of NAG and NAM.
During the LOG phase when they are actively multiplying.
When is a culture usually maintained by a company?
Stationary phase, keep adding new medium and removing the waste material.
We use what phase of bacteria in the lab?
Log, when they are actively multiplying.
Death phase:
# of viable cells decrease
decrease at a constant rate
death is exponential
some cultures reatin live cells indefinitely some produce endospores
Numbers don't increase much
lag phase
numbers increase tremendously
Log or exponential
births and deaths the same
stationary phase
Death phase
total number of viable cells decrease, constant rate.
prolonged decline
bacteria hang out, slowly decline, endospores, can last for months or years.
What are the benefits of prolonged decline phase?
cells are fitter than the ones at the begining. antibiotic resistant. 99% all other cells are dead.
What do we need to provide the bacteria so it can grow?
Bacteria can survive in what environments?
Nearly all, comfortable, harsh, extreme, very versitle
Physical requirements for microbial growth consists of:
What six elements are needed for all living things to grow?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
Every bacteria has a _____ range they can grow.
temperature range
minimum, max and optimum
Any temperature changes over the maximum ______ the bacteria and a temperature on the minimum will make the bacteria _________.
dormant or slow the growth
Why is a vegatative cell killed with too much temperature and not too little temperature?
Too high, the protiens get denatured, lose their shape and die. When a protien is destroyed they cannot survive.
Human temp
37 degree C
Room temp
22 degree C
Refridgerator temp
4-8 degree C
Freezer temp
-5 to -10 Degree C
Psychrophile temps, where can it continue to grow in our environment?
min -4
opt 10
max 17
Psychrotrophs temps and in our environment where could it grow?
Min; -4
Max: 35
Opt: 22
room temp
Psychrotrophs and Psychrophiles play a roll in ________.
food spoliage
Which two types of bacteria play a roll in food safety?
Psychrotrophs and Psychrophiles
Mesophiles temps and what environment do they grow best in?
Min 15
Max 45
Opt 35
most crutial for human pathogens
Thermophile temps and what environment do they grow best in?
Min 40
Max 80
Opt 60-65
found in water heater, compost pit.
Hyperthermophile temps and what environment do they grow best in?
Min 65
Max 110
Opt 90-95
not harmful to us, live in places we won't be going, archaea extreme temps, hot springs, volcanos
Everything being done inside a cell is being done by the ___________.
protiens, they are the work horses
What is the major catagory of bacteria in food spoilage?

refridgeration prevents the build up of water which prevents growth of bacteria

freezing more effective
What is pasturization?
Heating a product to a certain temperature to kill bacteria without killing the taste.
Two things are important when looking at the effect of heat on bacterial growth in the lab.
Time and how much temperature
TDP thermal death point
TDT thermal death time
What is crucial in the treatment of bacteria in the labratory?
Thermal death point and time.
Mesophile have a TDP of:
50 degree C
Mesophile has a TDT
4 minutes at 50 degrees
get their carbon from organic matter; the food we eat
Obtains carbon from chemical food
obtains carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide
dervives energy from sunlight
derives energy from chemical compounds
In addition to structure, carbon makes our body strong, we eat for______.
Name a phototroph.
What uses organic molecules as a source of energy and carbon
What groups belong to the chemoheterotrophs?
All animals
What group of prokaryotes use the energy of sunlight and the carbon in the atmosphere to make organic compounds?
_________ are called primary producers and ________ is an example that inhabits freshwater and saltwater.
Two other names for chemoautotrophs:
Prokaryotes that use inorganic compounds for energy and derive their carbon from CO2.
Prokaryotes that live in harsh environments such as sulfur, hot springs and are rich in reduced inorganic compounds such as hurogen sulfide.
Prokaryotes that use the energy of sunlight and derive their carbon from organic compounds. Can be facultative.
Prokaryote that uses organic compounds for energy and as carbon source. The most common group associated with humans and other animals.
Two other names for Chemoheterotrophs:
What is the carbon source for a photoautotroph? and an example?
organic molecules
green plants, algae, green and purple bacteria
What is the carbon source of a chemoautotroph? and an example?
atmospheric carbon dioxide
nitrogen, sulfate, oxidizing bacteria
What is the carbon source for a photoheterotroph and an example?
organic molecule compounds
purple nonsulfur bacteria
Pure culture is also known as:
stock culture
When grown in a ________ ______ what are the five stages a population of bacteria go through?
closed system
prolonged decline
The position of a single cell within a colony markedly determines its environment:
Colony Growth
Continuous Culture
bacteria can be maintained in a state of continuous exponential growth by using a chemostat.
What are the five groups of organisms based on temperatures? Based on what?
psychrotorphs psycho-cold
mesophiles meso-intermediate
thermophiles thermo-hot
hyperthermophiles hyper-excess
Based on optimum growth in what temp.
What are the groups of organisms based on Oxygen requirements?
Obligate aerobes
Obligate anaerobe
Facultative anaerobes
aerotolerant anaerobes based
Neutrophiles multiply between what pH's?
6 to 8, optimum pH7
Acidophiles have optimum growth at pH____.
below 5.5
pH of blood is?
7.3 pH
Most bacteria are what pH?
Alkalophiles are __________ and what is the pH for optimal growth?
basic and have optimal growht at pH above 8.5
What is a neutral pH level?
What level of pH do we use in the lab?
6.5 and 7.5
What is a buffer?
it doesn't let the pH fluxuate, controls the change
What is the product used to neutralize waste acids produced by bacteria?
Fungal molds and yeast grow best between what pH levels?
pH 5 - 6, acidic range
If you want to distinguish bacteria from fungus use what media?
Sab-dex media has a low pH about 5,
Would bacteria like to grow on the Sab-dex media?
No the pH is too low.
If you have an unknown that looks like yeast, but your not sure, it could be bacteria, what can you do now?
Use the Sab-dex media, if its fungus it will grow, bacterial won't.
Why do we use vinager for pickling?
It is an acid,in the acidic range you won't have pathonegenic bacteria that can harm us? No
How does Helicopbacter pylori bacteria survive in the acidic environment of the stomach even though they are neutrophiles?
Urease-an enzyme that breaks down a chemical called urea. When we eat protein and break down the amino acids or proteins it creates urea. It uses urease-enzyme along with urea, and breaks down into ammonia-pH basic, and water. The ammonia neutralizes the acid so the bacteria can burrow into the stomach wall and cause ulcers.
If someone wants to identify Helicopbacter pylori they can test for the presence or absence of what enzyme?
Facultative means:
It can live in those conditions or live without that condition
Obligate means:
It requires those conditions to survive or it will die
Are humans facultative or obligate for the presence of oxygen?
Staphylococcus aureus can be found on everyones skin. It is facultative for ______.
Facultative Halophiles tolerate what and give an example.
high salt environments, but doesn't have to have it.
ex: Staphylococcus aureus
Bacteria that require high salt for survival or cell growth are:
Obligate Halophiles
ex: Marine bacteria, Archaea bacteria or oceans
What will happen to bacterial cells in the presence of high salt in food preservation?
The water exits the cell, they experience plasmolosis and die
Bacteria that require oxygen are called?
We use oxygen to make what?
cellular respiration to make ATP
Two types of cellular respiration are:
anerobic and aerobic
List anerobic, aerobic and fermentaiton from highest to least yeild in ATP
most aerobic
middle anaerobic
least fermentaion
Which bacteria will grow faster aerobic or fermentation bacteria?
Bacteria that are obligate aerobes require_________.
require oxygen or they are dead.
Anaerobes can be ______.

facultative can have oxygen or not, if not Oxygen will switch to fermentation
Escherichia coli
aerotolerant anaerobe

does not need oxygen, but is not hurt by it.

ex: Streptococcus pyogenes
Obligate anaerobes example
Clostridium botulinum
Esceria coli
Clostridium tetani
Why does E.coli grow with or without oxygen?
It has different enzymes that Kocuria sp. doesn't have.
Indifferent to oxygen, grow with or without oxygen, doesn't use oxygen to produce energy
aerotolerant anaerobes
Would a Facultative Anerobe prefer to grow under anearobic or aerobic conditions?
Aerobic because it will make more ATP
Why does oxygen kill Obligate Anarobes?
Because they do not have certain enzymes, perioxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalayse
Why is oxygen harmful to anaerobes?
Oxygen is highly reactive, write O2, which means two atoms of oxygen are bonded together by covalent bonds.
When an Oxygen atom seperates from another it may steal an electron from the other and aquires a negative charge
that can destroy other oxygen molecules it bumps into. And the enzymes periocidase, superoxide dismutase and catalayse are protecting us.
The harmful oxygen atom is called:
a free radical.
bacteria that requires increase CO2
capno-carbon dioxide vapor
How to create an environment for a Capnophiles:
candle jar, the candle burns the oxygen produces CO2
OR CO2 incubator
What are the required nutrients for humans?
protein, lipid, nucleic acid and carbs
A method that counts only live microbes is the
plate count method
To develop a pure culture from a mixed culture, a microbiologist may use the
streak plate method
The problem with using gelatin as a solidifying agent for microbiological media is that
many organisms can degrade gelatin.

gelatin may not remain solid at temperatures required for a microbe's growth.

gelatin is not stable during sterilization procedures
A microorganism isolated from the Antarctic would most likely be
a psychrophile
A microorganism that can utilize oxygen when it is available but also can grow without oxygen is
a facultative anaerobe
Enzyme(s) that can help an organism survive the toxic effects of oxygen is (are):
superoxide dismutase
Organisms that require organic compounds for energy and a carbon source are called
Strict anaerobes do not contain
superoxide dismutase.
You grow an organism in media containing H2S and CO2 as the only sources for energy and carbon. This would be
an enrichment media for chemolithotrophs
Bacteria growing in log phase would be the least affected by antibiotics, True or false
The generation time of bacteria may vary from species to species.
Most bacteria divide by binary fission, producing two daughter cells.
Secondary metabolites are normally produced during late log phase
In the lag phase, cells increase the number of ribosomes they contain
growth medium that can discriminate between two different bacterial species based on an observed change in the media is termed
a differential medium
When cell number increases exponentially, the phase of the culture cycle is termed
log or exponential phase
The growth phase when cells are adapting to new growth conditions is termed
Differential media is used to
distinguish one organism from other organisms
A chemostat allows for
bacteria to be maintained in continuous exponential growth
If a culture starts with one cell at a maximum growth rate of 20 minutes doubling time, how many cells would be in the culture after 5 hours?
3.3 X 104
A mixture of organisms is in a pool of seawater. Which organism will have a growth advantage as the water evaporates?
osmotolerant prokaryotes.
The Most Probable Number (MPN) method of determining cell numbers is based on
serial dilutions
During which phase of culture growth are cells not actively dividing?
Biofilms increase effectiveness of disinfectants, True or false
Biofilms are important in a number of bacterial infections T or F
Biofilms are held together by glycocalyx T or F
Biofilms are mixtures of different microorganisms T or F
Biofilms have cell to cell communication between microorganisms T or F
pure bacterial culture maintained under completely anaerobic conditions accidentally develops a leak, letting oxygen into the chamber. Surprisingly, the bacteria continue to grow. It is very likely to conclude that the bacteria are
facultative anaerobes
A scientist wishes to monitor the growth and health of a bacterial culture by measuring ATP production. Which of the following would she most likely use to measure ATP?
Tomato sauce has a pH of 5. A scientist isolates several types of bacteria that cause spoilage to the tomato sauce. Which of the growth conditions should be used to maintain these bacteria in culture?
Bile is added to some media to encourage the growth of certain medically important bacteria while inhibiting the growth of others. Which of the following properties is bile adding to the media?
Selective properties.
A researcher is maintaining a liquid culture of bacteria at exponential growth. The pump providing nutrients to the culture breaks down over the weekend, allowing culture to run out of nutrients. It is very likely that upon return to the lab the researcher will find the culture in which of the following stages of growth?
You know exactly what you have put into your media and how much...this is what type of media?
Chemically defined media.
If you want to see what a bacteria needs to survive, what type of media would you use and why>
Chemically defined media in order to specifically know what the bacteria needs to grow.
Contains a variety of ingredients, exact ingredients are not known and could vary with each new batch.
Complex Media
What are two types of media used for growing bacteria in the lab?
Complex and chemically defined medias
TSA is what type of media
complex, general purpose
Types of media catagories
General purpose
Special Purpose
Assay-antibiotic media
Anaerobic media is used for growing what type of bacteria?
Non oxygen using bacteria, Obligate anaerobes. It is a reducing pyroglycalate media.
When you are using the media for looking at something specific identification which would you use?
Special purpose
When you want to enrich one paticular type of bacteria when it's mixed with alot of other bacteria use what media
enrichment media
If you have alot of mixed bacteria and put it in a selection media, all bacteria types will die except for one, which media
Selection media
If you put 2 bacteria that appear differently when put into this bacteria for distinguishing...what type of media
Differential media
Put S. aureus on various plates and it survives on some, dies on others, what type of media
Antibiotic media used for diagnositics to know what antibiotic to use for patient.
Transport media does what?
Keeps the bacteria sample alive and well so it can be cultured when arriving at the lab.
How does the transport media work?
use aerobic media, the O2 loving bacteria will hang out on the top, anaerobic on the bottom
encourages growth of desired bacteria
enrichment media
put 2-3 different types of bacteria, all look the same, put on what type of plate?
differential media, the bacteria will look different
blood agar plate is what?
differential media
MacConkey media is what type?
selective and differential gram+ doesn't grow, gram- survive and there are some gram- that give you different colors to identify what strain of bacteria you are seeing
EMB media describe:
selective and differential, contains pH indicator to identify bacteria that ferment lactose, prevents gram+ growth
Which of following is a general purpose media?
How can TSA be used?
As a general purpose media when we don't know exactly what bacteria you are looking at.
What type of media is EMB?
Selective and Differential
When you have a large volume and just a few bacteria what type of counting method will you use?
Filatration, used to filter solutions that can't be put in high
If you put proteins in high heat what will happen?
The protein enzymes will be destroyed. Use filtration for these types of blood agar plates
What is an example of filtration used today?
Heppa filters
What are examples of indirect methods of counting?
Turbidity: spectromphotometer
Total weight
Dry weight
acid and gas production-metabolic products
None of these are exact
Biofilm 3 examples:
Cystic Fibrosis
Dental plaque
pond skum
What properties of Agar make it ideal for use in bacteriological media?
very few bacteria can degrade it, it's not destroyed at high temperatures and can be sterilized and can remain in melted form until it reaches a temp below 45degrees cel.
Four environmental factors that affect microbial growth:
oxygen, temp, pH, water
List the catagories into which bacteria can be clssified according to the requirments for oxygen:
Obligate anaerobes, Obligate aerobes, facultative anaerobes, microaerophiles, aerotolerant anaerobes, oligate fermenters
Definition of sepsis:
microbial contamination that is decaying and putrid. Where bacteria should not be:
The absence of significant contamination.
Asepsis; follow aseptic techniques to keep down bacteria on counters etc. foreign bacteria
Aseptic surgery
techniques prevent microbial contamination of wounds. Always followed in operating rooms.
Are aseptic techniques followed in an operating room
Not an option in an operating room because some of the instruments and entire room cannot be sterilized.
Destroys 100% of bacteria, endospores and viruses
How does sterilization happen?
filtration, heat chemicals and radiation
Eliminates most microbes through some viable microbes may exist
dis-away different direction
fect-to cause
Would you disinfect your skin?
No, that is an antiseptic.
What principle of control is applied to non-living surfaces?
Treatment to reduce pathogens to level considered to be safe.
Mchanism used to decrease the mumber of microbes in an area, paticularly the skin.
I __________ my hands by washing them with soap and water.
What is labeled as having some toxicity to the person or on living skin?
If I have disinfected my table I've done what?
I have reduced the level of bacteria to a level that is safe, decontamination. Where you cannot achieve 100% sterile like an instrument in surgery.
Pasteurization is used for what?
solutions like milk or juice, surfaces like tubs that hold food
Does pasteuriztion kill all bacteria?
The food industry is concerned with what types of bacteria?
Bacteria that will cause food spoilage:
Substantially reducing the microbial population used in the resteraunt industry.
Sanitization in resteraunts happens how?
A low level chemical or gas that is sprayed on the dishes after the wash cycle, reduces to an acceptable level.
Used to delay spolage or perishable items, often includes the addition of chemical
What was first original preservative used in food preservation?
Citric acid
Types of Antimicrobial substances:
chemist looked at the structure of the penicillin and created a synthetic antibiotic which behaves like natural antibiotics.
Antibiotic- that’s coming from a natural source, purify penicillin from the actual fungus and inject it in the person it’s natural
Natural Source- Antibiotic
Any chemical safe enough to be taken in the body
Chemotherapeutic Drug
If it’s a drug against bacteria its called
an antibiotic
A chemotherapeutic drug that is only affective against viruses
Anti-viral don’t have cells or many target able structures so it’s difficult
A chemotherapeutic drug for anti fungal is rare because?
Fungui is made of Eukaryotic cells, like humans, so its hard to find drugs that won’t kill us but kill the anti-fungal- toxicity problems with antifungal drugs which include- liver damage
When the toxicity level is not so bad on humans, the FDA will give it an _________ substance name.
When the toxicity level is toxic on humans to certain levels, the FDA will give it an _________ substance name.
How does the FDA rate chemicals? 3 types of Antimicrobial substances.
Disinfectant, antiseptic or chemotherapeutic drug
What situations might you be concerned about microbial growth?
Daily life-kitchen chicken
microbiology labs
food and water production facilities
water treatment
computers and other industries
Nosocomial infection
an infection aquired in a hospital when your immune system is down.
Organisms that develop antimicrobial resistance due to high concentrations of antibiotics, pathogens found here.
Surgical instruments for invasive procedures must be _______.
__________ are a new concern in hospitals.
Patients are more succeptable to infections in a hospital.
Bacterial infections that are aquired in a hospital are much more viralent and harder to treat if acquired in a hospital.
Water treatment facitlites are worried about what type of bacteria?
Coliform, use chlorine but high levels can be toxic to humans
The selection of the type of antimicrobial procedure that you will use depends on what?
*type of microbe
*extent of contamination
or # of microbes present
*presence of organic
matter like blood and feces
*risk of infection to humans
*composition of infected item
Viruses with lipid envelopes are the easiest to kill off.
Viruses that have a lipid coating on the outside are called what
Lipid envelope
List Microbial type in least resistant to most resistant
1) Viruses with lipid envelope
2) Gram + bacteria
3) Virus w/o envelope
4) Fungui and spores
5) Gram- because of outermembrane
6)vegatative protozoa, amebia type protozoa
7) Cyst of protozoa, make sport like structure to shed in feces
8) Mycobacterium causes TB
9) Endospores of bacteria
10) prions.
How do we treat prions?
Burn the barn where the cow was, the grazing paster the farmers house everything needs to be torched
belong to archaea
belong to archaea
What are the two main requirements for microbial growth?
Physical and Chemical
what are the physical requirements for microbial growth
what are the chemical requirements for microbial growth
Inorganic and organic molecules
what are inorganic elements required for microbial growth
measures the temp which an organism is killed after 10 minutes
time required to kill bacteria broth culture at a given temp
thermal death time
What would you use to culture anaerobes
reducing media, brewers jar, anaerobic chambers
reducing media contains
thioglycollate thaqt combines with O2 and remofesw it from the media, resazurin-pink in presence of O2, small amount of agar to localize the growth