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248 Cards in this Set

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Give a few examples of extreme conditions and locations where microbes can live.
outer space,high pressure areas,under the sea, in ice, can survive radiation
Give a four examples of food sources for the microbes.
glucose, sulfur,chemicals, and hydrogen ions
When do you become colonized?
shortly after birth
How much of your body weight is bacteria bulk?
1-2 pounds
Why would it not only be a useless and bad idea to sterilize yourself?
-sterilization would take good and bad bacteria out of the body
-recolonization would occur within hours
Give 5 examples of huge impacts that microbes have had on the world.
1. atomic bomb
2. plague
3.Ireland's potato famine
4. Civil War infections
5.Malaria
What microbe was responsible for the plague?
yersinia pestis
Give two microbes involved in bioterrorism.
anthrax and saryn
What microbe causes the common cold?
adenovirus
What microbe causes diahrrea after ingesting bad food?
salmonella
What parasite causes diahhrea after ingesting contaminated water?
giardia
What fungus causes athletes foot and ring worm?
tinea
What microbe causes strept throat and skin infections?
streptococcal
What is the study of bacteria?
bacteriology
What is the study of viruses?
virology
What is the study of fungi?
mycology
What is the study of algae?
phycology
What is the study of protozoans?
protozoology
What is the study of parasites?
parasitology
What type of organism has no organelles or nucleus?
prokaryotes
What type of organism has a true nucleus, cell membrane, and is more advanced?
eukaryotes
What organism is referred to as a bag of things?
prokaryotes
What organism is referred to as bags inside of bags?
eukaryotes
What do viruses consist of?
DNA and RNA
Describe a virus's makeup.
A core with 8-12 genes long surrounded by a protein campsule.
What does the protein capsule do for viruses?
It allows for attatchment and protection.
How does a virus infect a cell?
Injects into cell and hijacks it.
What are the two types of prokaryotes?
bacteria and archae
What is larger, prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
eukaryotes
What are the three basic shapes and their names?
Round-cocci
Rods-Bacilli
Curved- helica
Give 2 examples of rounds or cocci microbes.
diplococci and staphylococci
Give two examples of bacillus or rod microbes?
bacillus and coccobacillus
Give two examples of spiral microbes.
spirillium,spirochete
Where are archea found?
in hostile environments
Where have archea been discovered?
in fossils
How do algae make food?
photosynthesis
What type of organism of algae is a single cell, but clumps together?
kelp
What organism starts the food chain?
phytoplankton
What organism is responsible for the red tide bloom and what is it's significance?
algae, produce toxins
Name three types of fungi.
yeast,mold,mushroom
How do fungi obtain food?
scavenge by secreting substances on rotting things and then absorb the nutrients
What is the immunocompromised patient?
AIDS, chemotheraphy
What fungus can effect the immunocompromised patient and what are its effects?
pneumocystis carni-brain and lung infection
What occured during the Salem witch trials that is significant to fungus?
A fungus on barley and rye in their bread produced highs of that like LSD.
What are the most complex unicellular organisms?
protozoas
How do protozoas move?
flagella or pseudopods
Name two types of protozoans that are disesases?
malaria and giardia
How small are viruses?
1/10 the size of bacteria
Can viruses be seen?
with an electron microscope
What do prions consist of?
protein only-no dna
How do prions reproduce
Replicate themselves
What are two prion related diseases?
mad cow disease
alzheimer's disease
How are prions thought to be transmitted?
similar to viruses
What are helminths?
worms
Why are worms studied within microbiology?
because of their size
Give an example of a flat worm.
tape
Give an example of a round worm.
hook worms
What is trichella and where is it found?
a hook worm in pork
Who was the first person to view microorganisms through a microscope?
Leeuwenboek
What power did Leeuwenhoek observe his specimens under?
200 x
What did Leeuwenhoek call the microbes?
animalcules
Who were the 3 big promoters of spontaneous life?
Francesco Redi,John Needham,Lazzaro Spallanzani
Who did the experiment with the maggots and jars?
Francesco Redi
Who thought that life begats life?
Francesco Redi
Who did the experiment with covered boiled chicken broth and air?
J. Needham
Who boiled chicken broth without air?
Spallanzani
Who did the experiment with cow pox and small pox?
Edward Jenner
What was concluded about the small pox and cow pox experiment?
Something in cow pox prevents small pox
Who was responsible for the experiment that involved the midwives and doctors?
Ignaz Semmelweiss
What was concluded about the midwife and doc experiment?
The mortality rate was higher in the unit run by doctors and med students because they washed their hands more than the midwives did in the poorer unit.
What did Pasture prove and invent?
1.Immunizations using attenuated viruses
2.No spontaneous generation

1.pasturization
2.swan neck flask
How did Pasture prove that life spawns from life?
He boiled chicken broth and covered it. Nothing grew.
Who used carbolic acid as a weak aseptic and was a big freak about washing hands?
Lister
Who studied the contagious disease anthrax and developed the germ theory?
Koch
What is the germ theory?
1. Organism is found in all disease suffering organisms, not healthy animals.
2. Organism must be grown in culture and isolated
3. Organism causes disease when injected in healthy animal
4.The organism must be re-isolated from the experimental animal.
Who discovered Penicllium Notatum on orange peels and what does it kill?
Fleming- kills staph aureus
What is a decimeter?
1/10 of a meter
What is a centimeter?
1/100 of a meter
What is a millimeter?
1/1000 of a meter
What is a micrometer?
1/1,000,000 of a meter
1/1,000,000,000 of a meter is what?
nanometer
What is a picometer?
one trillionth of a meter
What are sugars,fatty acids,amino acids,and nucleotides synthesized into?
1.polysaccharides
2.fats,lipids,membranes
3.proteins
4.nucleic acids
What is the cell's energy currency?
adenosine tri phosphate
Name some proccesses that require ATP.
transport,protein production,movement,synthesis
What is the breaking down of macromolecules into smaller parts?
catabolism
What is the conversion of chemical energy into ATP?
chemolithotrophy
What is used during chemolithotrophy?
hydrogen gas or sulfur
What is the conversion of organic chemical energy into ATP?
respiration or fermentation
Give the products of respiration or fermentation of a glucose molecule.
resp 1. glucose into co2 and water
ferm 2.glucose into ethanol and co2 gas
WHAT HAPPENS IF OXYGEN IS NOT AVAILABLE TO METABOLIZE Glucose?
FERMENTATION OF The GLUCOSE will produce ALCOHOL AND CO2 and energy
What other way can be used to make energy?
WHAT HAPPENS IN THE HUMAN BODY WHEN NOT ENOUGH OXYGEN IS BEING DELIVERED TO THE MUSCLE?
LACTIC ACID GENERATES
WHAT TAKE IN SUNLIGHT TO PRODUCE MOLECULES WHOSE BONDS CONTAIN ENERGY DERIVED FROM SUNLIGHT?
PRODUCERS
WHAT PROCESSES PLANT MOLECULES TO RELEASE AND HARNESS ENERGY FOR THEIR OWN USE?
CONSUMERS
WHAT PROCESSES ARE INVOLVED IN WATER WASTE PLANTS AND WHICH IS MOST IMPORTANT?
FERMENTATION AND RESPIRATION-RESPRIATION
WHAT IS WHEN ORGANIC MOLECULES ARE TAKEN INTO A CELL IN A SERIES OF STEPS AND BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER MOLECULES WHILE RELEASING ENERGY THAT IS CAPTURED IN ATP?
RESPIRATION
WHAT IS THE OVERALL PROCESS OF RESPIRATION CONCERNING ELECTRONS?
TAKE ELECTRONS FROM WASTE AND TRANSFER THEM THROUGH CHEMICAL REACTIONS TO AN OXYGEN RECEPTOR
DURING ELECTRON TRANSFER OF RESPIRATION, WHAT IS PRODUCED?
ATP
WHAT IS ATP?
AN ENERGY CARRIER FOR THE CELL
AS BONDS ARE BROKEN DURING RESPIRATION, WHAT CARRIES THE ENERGY?
ELECTRONS
AS ELECTRONS ARE PASSED TO SMALLER MOLECULES, WHAT OCCURS?
THE SMALLER MOLECULES CONTAIN LESS AND LESS ENERGY
WHAT IS THE FINAL MOLECULE TO RECEIVE THE ELECTRONS?
OXYGEN
WHAT DOES THIS FORMULA REPRESENT? C6H1206 + O2=CO2 +H20+ENERGY
RESPIRATION
WHY DO WATER PLANTS PUMP, AGITATE, AND OXYGENATE THEIR WATER?
THERE IS TOO MUCH ENERGY COMING INTO THE PLANTS FOR THE MICROBES TO METABOLIZE WITH JUST THE AVAILABLE OXYGEN
WHAT HAPPENS to organic molecules if they are not made into energy?
They begin an ANABOLIC PATHWAY TO CREATE ANOTHER MOLECULE
WHEN MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN, WHAT ARE INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS USED FOR?"
A SYNTHESIS PATHWAY TO PRODUCE NEW MOLECULES
WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THE WASTE IS SETTLED in ponds?
SUBJECT TO ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION
WHAT IS kind of compounds are produced DURING FERMENTATION OF THE WASTE?
ORGANIC ACID COMPOUNDS
WHAT ARE METHANE PRODUCING BACTERIA?
METHANOGENS
WHAT DO METHANOGENS DO?
PROCESS THE ORGANIC ACIDS FURTHER AND CREATE METHANE GAS
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THERE IS NO LIGHT?
ENERGY CONTAINED WITHIN INORGANIC CHEM BONDS USED AS AN ENERGY SOURCE
WHERE DO CHEMOLITHOTRPHES LIVE?
HOT SPRINGS,MOUNT SAINT HELEN ERUPTION,OCEAN
HOW IS WINE MADE?
GRAPES' FRUCTOSE SUGAR BROKEN DOWN TO CO2 AND ALCOHOL
WHAT PRODUCES THE FIZZ IN BEER AND THE HOLES IN CHEESE?
CO2
HOW ARE ORGANIC MOLECULES JOINED TOGETHER?
BONDS THAT CONTAIN ENERGY
HOW DOES E.COLI LEAD TO KIDNEY FAILURE?
BODY GENERATES ANTIBODIES TO THE TOXINS, AND THE TOXIN-ANTIBODY COMPLEX MAY ACCUMULATE WITHIN THE KIDNEY
WHAT IS THE CELL MEMBRANE MADE OF?
LIPID,PROTEIN,CARBS
WHAT IS UNIQUE TO BACTERIA?
PEPTIOGLYCAN CELL WALL
WHERE IS DNA LOCATED IN PROKARYOTES?
FREE FLOATS IN CYTOPLASM
WHAT IS WHEN A SMALLER PARTICLE OR LIQUID IS ENGULFED?
PINOCYTOSIS
WHAT IS THE REMOVAL OF SUBSTANCES FROM A CELL?
EXOCYTOSIS
WHICH GRAM TYPE HAS A THINNER CELL WALL?
GRAM -
WHAT IS THE CELL WALL SITE OF FOR SOME THINGS?
ANTIBIOTIC SITE SUCH AS PENICILLIN
WHERE IS THE OUTER MEMBRANE USUALLY SEEN?
GRAM - BACTERIA
WHAT IS THE 5 FUNCTIONS OF THE OUTER MEMBRANE?
-PROTECTION
-LIMITS DESTRUCTION BY MACROPHAGES
-PROVIDES ATTATCHMENT SITES FOR ANTIBODIES
-ENDOTOXINS
-PREVENTS ANTIBIOTICS FROM AFFECTING CELL WALL
IF THE OUTER MEMBRANE IS FIXED OR MOBILE, WHAT IS IT REFFERED TO?
CAPSULE,SLIME LAYER
WHAT IS A SMALL PROTEIN TUBE THAT FORMS ON THE SURFACE OF A CELL ALLOWING CONJUGATION?
PILI
WHAT IS THE TRANSFER OF DNA BETWEEN TWO BACTERIA?
CONJUGATION
WHAT CODES FOR AN ENZYME?
PLASMID
WHAT IS ATTATCHMENT POINTS TO BIND TO OTHER HOST'S CELLS?
FIMBRIA
WHAT ARE FLAGELLA CALLED IN EUKARYOTES?
CILLIUM
ARE CILLIUM AND FLAGELLA SIMILAR?
NO
HOW IS DNA PASSED ONTO THE NEXT GENERATION?
DNA INFO IS TRANSCRIBED AND TRANSLATED INTO PROTEINS
WHAT TRANSLATES THE MRNA INTO A POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN?
RIBOSOME
WHAT IS THE RIBOSOME STRUCTURE?
2 SUBUNITS-EACH COMPOSED OF ONE OR TWO LARGE RNA MOLECULES
WHAT do Swedburg units measure?
They measure the rate of sedimentation of a particle in a centrifuge.
WHAT ARE THE RATES OF SEDIMENTATION IN PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES?
P-70S
E-80S
WHY ARE RIBOSOMES IN P VS E ARE DIFFERENT?
ANTIBIOTIC TARGET
What are eukaryotic cell walls made up of?
cellulose,chitin,glucan
What is special about protozoans and do they have cell walls?
no cell wall- have pellicle protein coat
WHAT IS THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF CELLS IN HUMANS?
GLYCOCALYX
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE GLYCOCALYX?
ATTATCHMENT AND ID OF ANTIBODIES AND WBCS
WHAT DOES THE GLYCOCALYX LACK?
PEPTIOGLYCAN-TARGET OF PENICILIN
WHAT DO MITOCHONDRIA CONTAIN?
DNA
WHAT ARE THE FOLDS IN MITOCHONDRIA AND WHAT ARE THEIR FUNCTIONS?
CRISTAE-CONTAIN ENZYMES FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE GOLGI APPARATUS?
PACKAGE LIPIDS,PROTEINS,AND ENZYMES FOR EXPORT
WHERE ARE LYSOSOMES made AND WHAT ARE THEIR PURPOSE?
-IN MACROPHAGES
-PRODUCED BY THE GOLGI COMPLEX
-CONTAINING DIGESTIVE ENZYMES
WHERE IS THE HEREDITARY INFO STORED?
NUCLEUS AND NUCLEOLUS
WHAT IS RESTING DNA CALLED?
CHROMATION
WHAT happens to dna when it is reproducing?
Condenses into chromosomes
WHAT IS THE NUCLEOUS FUNCTION AND LOCATION?
inSIDE OF NUCLEUS, RNA PRODUCTION
WHAT IS THE ER INVOLVED WITH?
MRNA TRANSCRIPTION AND PROTEIN PRODUCTION
WHERE ARE PROTEIN CHAINS PRODUCED AND DEPOSITED INTO?
CHANNELS OF THE ER
WHERE DOES ACTIVE PROTEIN PRODUCTION OCCUR?
ROUGH ER
WHO INVENTED THE RABIES VACCINE?
PASTURE
HOW DO PROKARYOTES REPRODUCE?
ASEXUAL BINARY FISSION
WHO HAS A FASTER METABOLIC AND REPRODUCTION RATE?
MET-PRO
REP-PRO
GIVE THE 4 STRUCTURES IN BACTERIA?
OUTER AND INNER MEMBRANES,ACCESSORY STRUCTURES,CELL WALL
WHAT WOULD OCCUR IF THE BACTERIA DID NOT HAVE A CELL WALL?
SWELL AND EXPLODE DUE TO OSMOTIC PRESSURE
HOW ARE ARCHEA DIFF THAN PROKARYOTES? 2
DIFFERENT CELL WALL STRUCTURE and different ribosome types
WHAT ARE EXTREMOPHILS?
ARCHEA
WHAT IS THE CELL MEMBRANE MADE OF?
LIPIDS WITH A HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC TAIL
DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE by describing the layers and molecules it is composed of.
BILAYER, AND MADE OF PHOSPHOLIPID AND PROTEINS
WHAT IS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE CALLED IN GRAM -S?
INNER MEMBRANE
WHAT REGULATES FLOW OF MOLECULES INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL?
CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE
WHAT TYPE OF TRANSPORT HAS MATERIALS MOVE FROM HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO LOWER CONCENTRATION WITHOUT NEED FOR ENERGY?
PASSIVE
WHAT TYPE OF TRANSPORT INVOLVES PROTEIN MOLECULES ACT AS A REVOLVING DOOR?
FACILITATED
WHAT ARE PIECES OF CELL MEMBRANE SURROUNDING THE MOLECULE SO IT CAN MOVE ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE?
VESICLE
HOW DO ANTIBIOTICS WORK?
DAMAGES CELL WALL AND CELL RUPTURES
WHAT IS PEPTIOGLYCAN MADE OF?
PEPTIDE AND CARB
WHAT ARE The two things that make up the grid OF PEPTIOGLYCAN?
NAM-ACETYLMURAMIC ACID-carb
NAG- ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE-peptide
WHAT ARE BACTERIOPHAGES?
VIRUS THAT ATTACK BACTERIA
WHAT IS THE ORDER OF BACTERIA LAYERS FROM THE INSIDE OUT?
CELL MEM, CELL WALL, OUTER MEM
WHERE ARE ENDOTOXINS CONTAINED?
OUTER MEMBRANE
HOW DOES THE OUTER MEMBRANE PROTECT THE BACTERIA FROM MACROPHAGES?
SLIPPERY- SLIPS AWAY
IS AN OUTER MEMBRANE ALWAYS PRESENT IN BACTERIA?
NO- DEPENDS ON SPECIES
WHAT IS THE ATOMIC NUMBER?
NUMBER OF PROTONS IN NUCLEUS
IF THERE IS AN UNEQUAL NUMBER OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS WHAT RESULTS?
CHARGED ION
WHAT ARE ATOMS THAT HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS BUT VARY IN THE NUMBER OF NEUTRONS?
ISOTOPES
if an isotope is unstable, what will it do to try to become more stable, and what is this called?
it will try to lose a neuron -RADIOACTIVITY
WHAT IS THE TIME FOR HALF OF THE ATOMS TO LOSE ENOUGH NEUTRONS TO BECOME A MORE STABLE FORM?
RADIOACTIVE HALF LIFE
WHAT IS THE WEAKEST BOND THAT HOLDS TOGETHER DNA?
HYDROGEN BONDS
WHAT IS THE BONDS BASED ON ELECTROSTATIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO IONS OF OPPOSITE CHARGES?
IONIC BONDS
WHAT IS THE REACTION THAT JOINS TWO ELEMENTS TOGETHER TO MAKE A NEW THING?
SYNTHESIS
WHAT IS THE REACTION THAT BREAKS THINGS APART?
DECOMPOSITION
WHAT OCCURS DURING REACTIONS WITH THE BONDS INVOLVED?
BREAK OR MAKING BONDS
WHAT IS THIS AN EXAMPLE OF:
HCL+NAOH=>NACL+H20
EXCHANGE REACTION
WHAT IS A REACTION THAT REQUIRES ENERGY?
ENDOTHERMIC
WHAT IS A REACTION THE GENERATES ENERGY?
EXOTHERMIC
WHAT TYPE OF heat REACTION OCCURS WHEN GLUCOSE IS BROKEN DOWN BY THE CELL TO PRODUCE ATP?
EXOTHERMIC=heat is released
WHAT DO EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS NEED TO GET STARTED?
ENERGY OF ACTIVATION
WHAT LOWERS ENERGY OF ACTIVATION AND WHAT IT THE RESULT OF IT?
CATALYSTS-REACTIONS PROCEED AT A MUCH LOWER TEMPERATURE
WHAT ARE CATALYSTS THAT ALLOW REACTIONS TO PROCEED AT BODY TEMP?
ENZYMES
WHAT IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN DONATE AN H ION?
ACID
WHAT IS A SUBSTANCE THAT CAN ACCEPT AN H ION?
BASE
DESCRIBE THE PH SCALE.
0-14 THE LOWER THE NUMBER, THE MORE ACIDIC
WHAT SCALE IS THE PH BASED ON?
LOG SCALE-POWERS OF 10
WHAT IS THE PH OF BLEACH AND STOMACH ACID?
BLEACH=11, ST ACID=1
WHAT ELEMENT IS USED IN SCI FI AS ANOTHER FORM OF LIFE?
SILICON IN COMPUTERS
WHAT IS THE SUGAR FORMULA?
CH20)N N=3-7
WHY DO BACTERIA AND YEAST FERMENT ENERGY?
TO PRODUCE ENERGY
GIVE A STRUCTURE OF GLYCERIDE.
3 CARBON GLYCEROL MOLECULE WITH FATTY ACIDS
WHAT makes up an amino acid? 2 things
CARBOXYLIC GROUP AND AMINO GROUP
WHAT CODES FOR AMINO ACID IN A RIBOSOME?
A 3 SEQUENCE CODE OF DNA
NAME THE NUCLEOTIDES AND SPECIFY DNA VS RNA.
GUANINE,ADENINE,THYMINE,CYTOSINE,URACIL REPLACES THYMINE IN RNA
WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF NUCLEOTIDES?
PURINES AND PYRAMIDINES
WHAT IS THE DIF BETWEEN DNA AND RNA?
SUGARS-DEOXYRIBOSE AND RIBOSE
WHAT MAKES UP THE STRUCTURAL BACKBONE OF DNA AND RNA MOLECULES?
NUCLEOTIDES
WHEN A SUGAR MOLECULE FERMENTS WHAT IS CREATED?
ALCOHOL OR ACID AND CO2 AND 2 ATP
IN FERMENTATION WHAT DETERMINES WHETHER AN ACID OR A ALCOHOL ARE PRODUCED?
DEPENDS ON THE ORGANISM
WHEN A BREWER'S YEAST IS FERMENTED..WHAT IS CREATED?
ALCOHOL
WHEN A LACTOBACILLUS FERMENTS WHAT IS CREATED?
LACTIC ACID
WHEN A ACETOBACTER FERMENTS WHAT IS CREATED?
VINEGAR
WHAT HAPPENS IF THE PRODUCT PRODUCED DURING FERMENTATION ACCUMULATES?
KILL THE ORGANISM
IN CONSUMER, WHAT PROCESS OF METABOLISM REQUIRES OXYGEN AND WHICH DOES NOT?
YES-RESPIRATION
NO-FERMENTATION
WHAT IS THE GOAL OF THE CELL DURING METABOLISM?
CELL CAPTURE ENERGY IN CHEMICAL BONDS OF THE ORGANIC MOLECULES
WHAT IS THE ENTRY MOLECULE INTO FERMENTATION OR CREB'S CYCLE?
3 CARBON MOLECULE, PYRUVATE
WHAT IS THE BREAKING OF THE SIX CARBON GLUCOSE INTO TWO 3 CARBON PYRUVATES?
GLYCOLYSIS
IN THE PROCESS OF GLYCOLYSIS HOW MANY ATPS ARE REQUIRED AS ACTIVATION?
2
HOW MANY ATPS ARE PRODUCED DURING GLYCOLYSIS?
4
HOW MANY ATPS ARE PRODUCED PER GLUCOSE MOLECULE IN GLYCOLYSIS?
2 PER GLUCOSE MOLECULE
IN WHAT KIND OF CELL CAN THE PYRUVATE BE FURTHER BROKEN DOWN AND WHAT DOES IT YIELD?
EUKARYOTES- MORE ATP
WHERE IS THE ENERGY CONTAINED IN ATP?
PHOSPHATE BOND
WHY IS ATP A VERY COMMON MOLECULE WITHIN A CELL?
ITS ABILITY TO TRANSFER ITS ENERGY TO A WIDE VARIETY OF MOLECULES AND REACTIONS
HOW IS PYRUVATE PRODUCED?
GLYCOLYSIS OF GLUCOSE WITH PRODUCTION OF 2 ATPS
what occurs when pyruvate is fermented/.
CONVERTED TO CO2 AND ALCOHOL/ACIDS TO RELEASE SOME ENERGY
CAN THE PYRUVATE ENTER CREB'S CYCLE IN WHAT TYPE OF CELL?
EUKARYOTE
WHAT IS A SERIES OF REACTIONS WHICH FURTHER PROCESSES PYRUVATE AND RELEASE MORE ENERGY WHICH IS CAPTURED IN ATP AND A FEW OTHER MOLECULES/.
KREB'S CYCLE
HOW MANY ATPS ARE PRODUCED DURING CREB'S CYCLE?
38
NADH=> ?
FADH2=>?
NAD AND ENERGY
FAD AND ENERGY
WHY DOES FADH AND NADH HAVE TO BE PROCESSED?
TO TRANSFER THEIR ENERGY TO CONVERT ADP TO ATP
WHEN IS NADH AND FADH2 PRODUCED?
DURING KREB'S CYCLE
WHAT IS WHEN BONDS BROKEN ENERGY IS STORED IN NADH AND FADH2 TO CONVERT ADP TO ATP?
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
WHERE DOES THE ENERGY COME FROM?
ELECTRONS IN BONDS
WHERE DOES THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN TAKE PLACE?
WITHIN MITOCHONDRIA
WHERE DOES GLYCOLYSIS OCCUR IN EUKARYOTES AND PROKARYOTES
E-CYTOPLASM
P-CYTOPLASM
WHERE DOES THE INTERMEDIATE STEP TAKE PLACES IN EUKARYOTES AND PROKARYOTES?
E-CYTOPLASM
P-CYTOPLASM
WHERE DOES THE KREBS CYCLE TAKE PLACE IN EUKARYOTES AND PROKARYOTES?
E-MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX
P-CYTOPLASM
WHERE DOES THE ELECTRON CHAIN TRANSFER TAKE PLACE IN EUKARYOTES AND PROKARYOTES
MITOCHONDRIAL INNER MEM-E
P-PLASMA MEMBRANE
WHAT ARE THE TWO FUNCTIONS OF CREB'S CYCLE?
-ENERGY
-FORMATION OF MOLECULES TO ENTER OTHER PATHWAYS
WHAT TYPE OF OBE CANNOT LIVE WITHOUT OXYGEN?
OBLIGATE ANAEROBE
WHAT TYPE OF OBE CAN TOLERATE SOME 02?
FACILITATIVE ANAEROBE
WHAT TYPE OF OBE PREFERS SOME 02?
FACILITATIVE AEROBE
WHAT TYPE OF OBE CANNOT LIVE WITHOUT 02?
OBLIGATE AEROBE
WHY CANNOT ALL MICROBES USE KREBS CYCLE TO MAKE ENERGY?
LACK ENZYMES AND PATHWAYS,MITOCHONDIRIA,AND OXYGEN IS TOXIC TO SOME MICROBES
WHY IS OXYGEN TOXIC TO SOME MICROBES?
THEY LACK THE ENZYME TO CONVERT HYDROGEN PEROXIDE TO WATER
WHAT IS BARLEY THAT CONTAINS AMYLASE TO BREAK DOWN STARCH INTO GLUCOSE?
MALT
WHAT GIVES THE BEER ITS FLAVOR AND ACTS AS AN ANTIBIOTIC?
HOPS