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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Salting of meat to prevent spoilage by microorganisms produces surface conditions for these cells best described as
hypertonic
the issue of spontaneous generation was finally resolved by
Pasteur
facilitated diffusion requires
permeases
diaminopimelic acid is the tetrapeptide linking agent in
gram negative cells
secretory proteins in procaryotes are usually translated on ribosomes that are
membrane bound
teichoic acid is found in the envelope of
gram positive cells
mitochondria evolved from
bacterial symbionts
penicillin prevents formation of
pentaglycine
lysozyme cleaves
glycosidic bonds
cells suspended in hypotonic solutions undergo
plasmoptysis
bacteria with clusters of flagella at one or both ends is called
lophotrichous
which requires energy
active transport
mitochondria branch from the tree in the line that gives rise to
bacteria
the phylogenetic tree of life has how many major groups of organisms
3
procaryotic mRNA differs from eucaryotic in that it is
polyinformational
procaryotic DNA is
circular
a major advantage for pathogenic bacteria is
capsules
archae derive from
eukaryotic organisms
autophagic vacuoles derive from
ER
ubiquitin aids in
protein degradation
phosphorylation of the Che Y indicates
no MCP binding
dipeptide binding to procaryotic chemoreceptors cause
a run
microtubules are the main component in the structure of
axonemes
spore cortex is composed of
peptidoglycan
spore formers that grow well in low oxygen tension include
clostridium
using organic molecules as the final electron acceptor is called
fermentation
bacterial growth curve areas where there is no cell division is the
lag phase
sugars for nucleic acid synthesis are provided by
pentose phosphate pathway
competitive inhibition results from binding of an inhibitor
at the active site
singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are strong
oxidizing agents
oxygen is the final electron acceptor in
aerobic respiration
what are standard autoclaving conditions
121C, 15 psi, 15 min
anabolism usually requires
NADP
a dangerous component of honey is
clostridium
campylobacter is a common contaminant of
chicken
which requires preformed organic matter to generate ATP
heterotrophs
low O2 levels reduce activity of
TCA cycle
.2ml of a 10(-6) dilution yielded 39 bacterial colonies on a plate. how many colony forming units were in each ml of the original culture
19.5x10(7)
tissue culture media has a unique requirement for
serum
RNA transcripts for proteins in cisternal space are
larger than those coding for cytoplasmic proteins
chemoautotrophs obtain energy by
oxidizing inorganic compounds
aerobic bacteria are capable of surviving in high oxygen concentration by producing enzymes that degrade hydrogen peroxide and
superoxide
the Entner Doudoroff Pathway is most often found in
Gram negative bacteria
Acetyl-CoA if ATP levels are very high in eucaryotic cells of mammals, is converted into
fat
the pentose phosphate pathway produces
7 carbon sugars, 4 carbon sugars, and reducing power
compounds produced in glycolysis and the TCA cycle rob metabolic processes of
carbon
substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis results in a net gain of
2 ATP's
the glyoxylate cycle preserves
carbon
catalase reacts with H2O2 to produce
O2
high levels of activated CAP indicate that
lactose is at maximum transport levels coming into the cell
high levels of cyclic AMP indicate
lac operon structural gene transcription
the PEP:PTS system begins with
enzyme phosphorylation
during gene repression the active repressor binds to the
operator
during induction the regulator gene product is
inactivated by inducer
the promoter is adjacent to the
operator
most bacterial pathways were constructed using
auxotrophic mutants
viral mediated DNA uptake is called
transduction
during typical conjugation the F- strain
always becomes F+
human papillomavirus is strongly implicated in
cervical cancer
structural genes are
downstream from the promoter
interrupted phage infection was used to study genetic information by
hershey and chase
in icosahedral capsids, the faces are composed of
hexons
the 12 vertices in icosahedral viruses are composed of
pentons
hershey and chase showed
that DNA is the carrier of genetic information
Hfr conjugation never results in F+ conversion because
the cleavage site for linear DNA production is the middle of the F+ factor gene
gene induction involves
inducer binding to repressor
the most probable cause of cervical cancer is
papilloamavirus
DNA fragments are analyzed using
Southern blot
naked DNA uptake by cells is called
transformation
influenza virus pandemics can be partly attributed to
segmented RNA
UV damage to DNA results in
thymine dimers
an example of latent viruses is
chickenpox
extremophiles survive primarily as a result of
chaperone proteins
reverse transcriptase produces
DNA