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80 Cards in this Set

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Peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria are composed of glycan chains of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylemuramic acid cross-linked by peptide chains of glycine...T or F
phenotypic classification of bacteria
microscopic morphology, macroscopic morphology, biotyping, serotyping, antibiogram patterns, phage typing
analytical classification of bacteria
cell wall fatty-acid analysis, whole cell lipid analysis, whole cell protein analysis, multifocus locus enzyme electrophoresis
genotypic classification of bacteria
guanine plus cytosine ratio, DNA hybridization, nucleic acid sequence analysis, plasmid analysis, ribotyping, chromosomal DNA fragment analysis
the infective phase of Cryptosporidium parvum is
the oocyst
the peptidoglycan in bacteria is responsible for
cell wall rigidity
a promoter at the beginning of a genetic operon is a(n)
sit on DNA where RNA polymerase binds
Bacterial spores are formed primarily by oranisms of the genus
Bacillus and Clostridium
The definition of a parasite is
one organism that lives at the expense of another organism called the host
Giardia intestinalis
is a member of the phylum Sarcosmastigophora, localizes in the GI tract of the human host, reproduces by binary fission, and has a direct life cycle
bacterial spores are
formed under adverse environmental conditions such as the absence of a carbon source, resistant to boiling, metabolically inactive and contain dipicolinic acid a calcium chelator, formed by gram-positive rods, can be killed by being heated to 121 C for 15 min, contain much less water than bacterial cells
an organism that has lost its ability to synthesize itos own histidine is called a(n)
The Electron transport chain, if present in bacteria, it will be found in
cytoplasmic membrane
In the US, the protozoan parasite, Leishmania spp. is transmitted by
Lutzomyia sandflies
Leishmania spp.
localizes in phagocytic cells in tissues of the human host
In E. coli, when the lac operon is fully induced (in the presence of lactose)
the lac repressor if inactive and transcription of the lac operon does occur
When glucose, but not lactose, is present in E. coli's environment
the repressor remains bound to the operator
Protozoan parasites are taxonomically classified using the following characterisitics
reproduction, # of nuclei, location in host, life cycle
the bacterial genome exists as
a circular piece of DNA
A famous Egyptian doctor, who also designed the step pyramid, who became later "God of Medicine" by ancient Egyptians
Believed in supernatural causes of, and cures for disease
Believed that disease had natural causes, e.g. "The Four Humor Theory" and th at it could be cured by rational methods
He wrote De contagione et contagiosis morbis et curatione. In it he described numerous contagious diseases and the means by which contagion can be spread
Isolated and stained the causative agent of anthrax
Robert Koch
Poisonous vapor or mist made up of particles from decomposing material, which people though caused disease
the first to visualize and study microbes using a simple lens microscope
van Leeuwenhock
the function of the sex (F) pilus of E. coli involves
transfer of DNA between bacteria during conjugation
operating int he mid 1800's, developed surgery which included heat-sterilization of instruments and application of phenols to wounds and dressings
Joseph Lister
the main function of the bacterial endospores is
survival against environmental dangers
the flagella, if present in bacteria, will be anchored in
the cytoplasmic membrane
by definition, and indirect parasitic life cycle includes
a parasite that must infect 2 different species of host to complete its life cycle
the process by which bacteriophage P1 packages random phage-genome-sized pieces into phage heads and thereby allows transfer of pieces of bacterial chromosomal DNA between bacteria is called
generalized transduction
refutation of theory of spontaneous generation
Louis pasteur
Cryptosporidium parvum
intracellular location in hose, member of the phylum apicomplexa, localizes in small intestine of host, reproduces sexually and asexually, has a direct life cycle
The definition of zoonotic is
a parasite that can be transmitted naturally between humans and animals
one of the main functions of the bacterial cell wall proteins is
recognition of specific receptors on target cells
Transformation is important in bacterial pathogenicity because
it allows uptake of DNA that can homologously recombine into the bacterial chromosome and change virulence characteristics
He noted that deaths due to a streptococcal infection(childbirth fever) were much higher in the physiscians ward as compared to deaths in the midwives ward. He subsequently institued strict hand-washing procedures for physicians and coud be considered the father of infection control
Ignatz Semmelweis
The process by which a bacterial cell pick up exogenous pieces of DNA directly from the media and incorporates it into it genome is called
the disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum is
gram-positive bacteria
gram-negative bacteria
cell-wall free bacteria
The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of an anaerobic respiration
is not oxygen
What cells produce antibodies?
B cells
Each of the following statements concerning the killing of bacteria is true
lysozyme in tears can hydrolyze bacterial cell walls, detergents can disrupt bacterial cell memebranes, and silver nitrate can inactivate bacterial enzymes
The following are found in the gram-positive bacteria cell wall
teichoic acid, lipteichoic acid, peptidoglycan
is equivalent to cell suicide
what is the major defense mechanism employed against virus infections
cell-mediated immunity
is used with edible material, designed to kill most of human pathogenic microbes, originally designed to kill unwanted bacteria in wine
lymph nodes
filter lymph, produce antibodies, trap foreign particles, trap invading bacteria
Host provides environment. microorganism feeds on digested food. usually harmless unless tissue is damaged environmental changes(antibiotics), host immune system changes
What type of leucocytes first appear at site of microbial invasion?
in which organ are 'B' lymphocytes mainly mature
bone marrow
Innate immunity
rapidly elminates microbes that succeed in entering host tissues, this type of host defense is always present in healthy individuals, it is prepared to block the entry of microbes
Immunoglobulin is the scientific name for
bacteria need iron for growth. however iron is not found in free form in the blood so how do bacteria obtain iron?
secrete chelating proteins known as siderophores
A germicide that kills most vegetative bacteria and lipid-enveloped or medium-size viruses
low-level disinfectant
Use of physical procedures or chemical agents to destroy most microbial forms; bacterial spores and other relatively resistant organisms may remain viable
the term humoral immuniy describes
antibody-mediated immunity
these bacteria use chemical sources of energy and organic compounds as source of carbon
bacterial structures that show antigenic diversity
pili, capsules, flagella
In which organ are lymphocytes mainly produced
bone marrow
Antigen-presenting cells (APC)
macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells
for the the T lymphocytes to be activated the antigen receptor and other accessory receptors need to be stimulated T or F
under what condition does the tricarboxylic acid cycle take place
when the interaction between microbe and human leads to a pathologic process characterized by damage to the human host
a germicide that kills all microbial pathogen except large numbers of bacterial spores
high-level disinfectant
range of activity of an antimicrobial against bacteria
antibacterial spectrum
the cardinal signs of inflammation
heat, swelling, pain, redness
Macrophages perform phagocytosis and intracellular killing of microbes using the following mechanisms
lysosomal enzymes in phagolysosomes, reactive oxygen intermediates & nitric oxide in phagolysosomes, myeloperoxidase dependent and myeloperoxidase independent rxns in phagolysosomes
Natural killer cells attack and kill invading bacteria using
Granzyme B and stimulation of the FAS receptors
level of antimicrobial activity that inhibits the growth of an organism
bacteriostatic activity
in a typical bacterial growth curve identify the growth phase in which cells experience autolysis
death phase
serum antibodies are not produced by
Helper T cells
Which immunoglobulin plays a key role in allergies
Vaccines that consist of inactivated organisms are
incapable of reverting to virulence
the primary immune response is characterized by
waning rapidly, induction by one dose of antigen, low levels of antibody produced, a long lag period
germicide capable of killing bacterial spores
in which organ are T lymphocytes mainly mature