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75 Cards in this Set

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Associated with Staph. infections, biols(furuncles), impetigo
Staphylococcus aureus
Associated with Step. throat, Rheumatic fever
Streptococcus
A caterpillar pathogen, so used for insect control
Bacillus thuringiensis
Causes serious liver damage
Hepatitis B
Demonstrated that hand washing reduced the transmission of Puerperal fever (childbirth fever)
Ignaz Semmelweis
Wanted to reduce surgical sepsis (festering of surgical wounds). Developed method using mist of carbolic acid.
Joseph Lister
Found a species of fungus causing a silkworm disease.
Bassi
Found an actual species of Protozoa causing a disease of silkworms.
Louis Pasteur
Koch's Postulates
1. The organism must be found in all animals suffering from the disease, but not in healthy animals.

2. The organism must be isolated from a diseased animal and grown in pure culture.

3. The pure culture should cause disease when introduced into a healthy animal.

4. The organism must be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal.
Pure Culture
Only one species of microbe present
First person to view microorganisms now called bacteria and protozoa.
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Developed cell theory after discovering small square structures in a thin slice of cork.
Robert Hooke
Disproved the spontaneous generation theory by placing meat in sealed flasks.
Francesco Redi
Claimed microorganisms developed spontaneously from fluids
John Needham
Claimed microorganisms entered Needham's solutions through the air, showed microbial growth didn't occur if flask was sealed.
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Disproved spontaneous generation theory with "swan-neck" flask experiment
Louis Pasteur
His exeriments showed the importance of oxygen to life.
Laurent Lavoisier
Developed biogenesis theory. (All cells arise from other cells)
Rudolf Virchow
Study of protozoa and worms that derive nutrients from host.
Parasitology
Study of insects, mites, and ticks.
Medical Entomology
Study of fungus.
Mycology
Study of algae.
Phycology
relatively simple aquatic organisms that are usually photosynthetic.
algae
-type of algae called Dinoflagellate
-produces neurotoxins
-some produce a toxin causing paralytic shellfish poisoning
Red Tide Organism
-very important base of food chain
-have external cell covering of silica
-used as filter for water supplies
Diatoms
Guniea worm, Tapeworm, hookworm are in field of ______
Parasitology
Botflies, mosquitos, lice, scabies mite, mange are in field of ______
Medical Entomology
Penicillum camemberti, digger dermatophyte are in field of _____
Mycology
What is the taxonomic classification of humankind?
Eukarya
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Primata
Homo
Sapiens
To cut holes in the skull (related to demonic possession)
Trepanning
What are Ill Humors?
ex)Bilious
ex)Phlegmatic
body fluids and imbalance of which caused illness.
bilious = irritable
phlegmatic = sluggish
Romans believed feverish disease that struck was the result of malaria coming off marshes
Bad Air or Bad Water
Have cell wall without peptidoglycan
Halophile - extremely salty
Thermophile - extremely hot
Archaea
Method of Bacterial cell division (DNA copied and cell splits into two)
Binary fission
rod shape
bacillus
sphere shape
coccus
spiral shape
spiral shape
Escherichia coli
single bacillus cells
Two bacilli connected end to end
Diplobacillus
chain of rods connected end to end
Streptobacillus
examle of streptobacillus
Bacillus subtilis
example of Diplococcus
Neisseria gonorrhea
four cocci in flat square
Tetrad
ex) Stomatococcus
8 cocci in a box
Sarcina
Chain of coccal cells connected end-to-end
Streptococcus
Irregular cluster of cocci
Staphylococcus
ex) Staphylococcus aureus
Curved rod, may be only slightly curved, or may have several twists
Spiral-shaped
Curved rods, looks like a comma
Vibrio
ex)Vibrio cholerae
Twisted rod that moves with help of flagella
Spirrillum
Twisted cell that moves with axial filament, NOT flagella
Spirochete
ex)Treponema pallidum
Four structures external to cell wall
1.Glycocalyx
2.Pili (fimbriae)
3.Flagella
4.Axial filaments
What are the 2 types of glycocalyx?
1.capsule- tightly adherent (appears smooth and shiny)
2.slime layer- loosely adherent (appears fluffy and irregular)
Functions of glycocalyx
1. Attachment (rocks in stream)
2. Bacterial Virulence - ability to cause disease (bacteria harder to grasp)
bacterial cell with one flagellum
monotrichous
bacterial cell with flagella over the entire suface
peritrichous
Describe bacterial flagellum structure
flagellum proteins wound in helix around hollow central core
Structure similar to flagella except run length of cell between sheath and cell wall
Axial filament
One-way transfer
called Bacterial Conjugation
- transfer involves extra piece of DNA called plasmid. Transfer is through a pilus.
Gram Positive Organisms
Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Basilus
Clostridium
all muscles contracted so back is contracted back
opisthotonus
Causes Gas gangrene, occurs after antibiotic therapy
C. dificile
Gram Negative Outer membrane includes:
1.LPS
2.Lipoproteins
3.proteins
4.phospholipids
protein that extends through the outer membrane
Porin
Gram Neg. Bacteria Examples
1.E. coli
2.Salmonella
3.Shigella
Distinguishes bacteria on the basis of waxes on the cell wall.
Acid-fast stain
AFB example
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Helps cell withstand environmental conditions, sometimes produces toxins
Plasmid
ex)tetanospasmin toxin
Prokaryotic ribosome density
Eukaryotic ribosome density
70S
80S
How many endospores formed per cell?
1
(can tolerate 119 degrees C)
Process of Endospore Formation
1.cell replicates DNA, identical copy made of chromosome plasma.
2.copies isolated in a region
3.cell membrane grows down to surround copies (includes ribosomes)
4.cell wall grows around the cell membrane
5.thick spore coat grows around cell wall
Targets metabolism that makes peptidoglycan(CELL WALL)
-Penicillin
-Cephalosporins
Targets prokaryotic CELL MEMBRANE
Polymixin B (neosporin)
Antiseptics examples
-Alcohol
-Quats
-Quaternary Ammonium Compound
(cepacol)
vaccine targets C. diptheriae
DPT (Diptheria Pertusis Tetanus)
Targets Prokaryotic Ribosomes(they have a different density)
-Erythromycin
-Streptomycin